BASIC PRINCIPLES OF AYURVEDIC FORMULATIONS
The basics of Ayurveda formulations include certain principles that are necessary to be observed for undertaking various procedures in the preparation of different simple or compound formulations. Usually, it includes different aspects for the understanding of different terminologies, their properties, the proportion of ingredients in the formulation and the routes of administration for these formulations. They are known as
- परिभाष (Paribhasha)
- रसपञ्चक (Rasapanchaka)
- पञ्चविध कषाय कल्पन (Panchavidha kashaya kalpana)
- औषध नामकरण (Aushadha Namakarana)
- भेषज रोगमार्ग (Bheshaja rogamarga)
The word paribhasha refers to definition in sanskrit. It defines the various technical terms that are used in the text which denote the proportion, procedure or even groups of drugs like Trikatu, Triphala, etc that are to be used in the formulation. It forms the basis of understanding with respect to what the formulation is made up off, how much is to be taken and what is the procedure that is to be performed to prepare the formulation.
For an easy use and logical use of every medicine in the healing science, it is important to understand its properties and actions. Without its proper knowledge and understanding it is very difficult to control their effects on the body. Thus every science of healing has tried to understand the action of their medicinal preparations or components. Ayurveda too has made a substantial and systemic method of explanation. The basis of the explanations of the pharmacological actions are the five properties RASA, GUNA, VEERYA, VIPAKA and PRABHAVA named as “RASAPANCHAKA“.
PANCHAVIDHA KASHAYA KALPANA
This principles consists of 5 basic formulations that have been used profusely in almost every compound formulations. These are the processes or procedures that are primary ones. These include Swarasa (Fresh juice extraction), Kalka (Fresh paste), Shrita (Fresh decoction), Sheeta (Cold infusions) and Phanta (Hot infusions). Irrespective to the type of formulations either single drug or compound either of them or a combination of these methods are employed. For example, an Avaleha is a improvisation of Kwatha preparation itself.
A recipe can be consisting of a single or multiple ingredients and it is the name of the first ingredient is used as the name of the recipe like Vidaryadi Kashayam. But there are other criteria for naming the formulations too. These depend on the benefit of the formulation Sudarshana Churna, dose of the formulation like Panchakola phanta, main ingredient like Brahmi Ghrita, historical importance like Chyavanaprasha, etc. These names are important for the purpose of clear identification and optimum use of the formulation. They also ensure to produce maximum benefits to the user.
Just like the dosage forms, it is also more important to understand the route of administration of different medicinal formulations. The nature of the formulation is mainly determined on the basis of this principle. These routes of administration will be based on the duration necessary for the formulations to act. These are skin, mouth, eye, ear, nose, anus, urethra and Vagina as per Ayurveda.