The pharmacological action which is used to name the 7th Group or Gana by Charaka is DEEPANEEYA. The action refers to DEEPANA and consists of 10 plants which have varied properties exhibiting the extent of this pharmacological action. The action is usually equated to Stamachics or appetizers. The action appears to be a simple with straight correlation with those explained in Modern pharmacology, but its reference also refers to metabolism of at different levels of the body. The details are explained on the basis of various references obtained from classical and recent texts of modern authors pertaining to the science of Ayurveda and also modern science.
DETAILS OF THE ACTION
CARMINATIVES, APPETIZER, STOMACHICS,
The reference is from Gangadhara (गं) commentary on Deepaneeya and Sharangadhara Samhita (शा. स.) respectively
SYNONYMS (IF PRESENT)
पचेन्नामं वन्हिकृच्च दीपनं तद्यथा मिशि ।
That which increases Agni but doesn’t digest the AMA is known as Deepana.
शारङ्गधर संहित पूर्व खण्ड 4th Chapter
MODE OF ACTION / PHARMACODYNAMICS
For understanding the present action of Deepana, it is very important to know the concept of AGNI. This is due to the fact that AGNI is being mainly affected by the introduction of the substances that exhibit this action. As the definition goes AGNI becomes UDEEPANA (Energize or activate) with the intake of these class of substances. The concept of Agni refers to three types namely AGNI at the level of Amashaya (Jataragni), Dhatu (Dhatvagni) and Mala (Malagni). Thus the substances that exhibit this property will have the capacity to energize or activate any of the three or all the three in general. But under general understanding, the Agni being referred to as Jataragni, this is being the basic parameter to assess the action of the substance. The main physical parameter to assess this action is increase in Appetite. But when the substance has the effect on the increase of Agni at the Dhatu (Tissue) level, then the evidence is understood to have increase in the need of energy for the functioning of the body tissues. As the definition clearly tells that the substance with Deepana action will not have the ability to Digest ‘AMA’, this implies that it can only increase the ability of the body or tissue or cell to increase the ability to ingest or accept nutrition but not result in transformation or metabolism. Sharangadhara Samhita mentions another activity namely “PACHANA” which describes the activity namely “increase of metabolism”. But Charaka has included both the categories in the same group of DEEPANEEYA itself.
It is very evident that as the action is more concerned with AGNI, the substances should have those properties that have the involvement of AGNI Mahabhuta namely ‘KATU, AMLA & LAVANA RASA; LAGHU, RUKSHA OR SNIGDHA (property seen in Pitta Dosha alone even though being derivative of AGNI), TEEKSHNA & SUKSHMA GUNA; USHNA VEERYA and KATU or AMLA VIPAKA.
Other than AGNI, there is also involvement of SAMANA VAYU in the increase of appetite along with KLEDAKA KAPHA. But among the two SAMANA VAYU has more prominence as it instigates AGNI thus giving a DEEPANA effect. Hence a substance with KATU RASA, KATU VIPAKA, LAGHU, RUKSHA GUNA and USHNA VEERYA will be more efficient than without these properties.
The most common correlation given to the Action Deepaneeya or Deepana is Carminatives, Stomachics or Appetizers.
Carminatives is defined as an agent that prevents or relieves flatulence. This may have the effect of relieving colic pain caused due to flatulence (https://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey= 24293). The substances that exhibit the activity help in expulsion of flatulence or gases from the GI tract along with a feeling of wellness, warmth, relief and comfort. Thus it will indirectly result in increase of appetite.
Stomachics is defined as that class of substances that improve the functional activity of stomach by the increase of secretion and movements. (https://www.biologydiscussion.com/veterinary-pharmacology/drugs-acting-on-gastrointestinal-tract-animals-pharmacology/74453#:~:text=Stomachics%3A,(i)%20 Hypochlorhydria%20and%20Achlorhydria). It improves the activity of stomach by increasing its tone and movement resulting in increase of Secretions. This inturn results in the increase of appetite.
Appetizer is defined as that class of substances that have the ability to the desire for more meal. This may be any food or drink or medicament that has the ability to increase the desire either by increasing secretion of Gastric juice or creating the environment like secretion of insulin that convert the glucose making the body crave more for the same.
In general the action of DEEPANA results in increase of secretions with respect to the part that is being acted upon (Stomach – Gastric secretions, Cell mediated mechanism – Enzymes or others that help in absorption of nutrients). This enhances the ability to ingest food on a gross level while the ability to absorb nutrition is increased in the cellular level along with use of energy.
INVESTIGATIVE PARAMETERS TO ASSESS
CATEGORY OF PARAMETER
TYPE OF INVESTIGATION
NOT YET COMPILED
NOT YET COMPILED
NOT YET COMPILED
LIST OF PLANTS THAT EXHIBIT THE ACTION
दीपनीय गण/DEEPANEEYA GROUP OF CHARAKA
पिप्पलीपिप्पलीमूलचव्यचित्रकशृङ्गवेराम्लवेतसमरिचाजमोदभल्लातकास्थिहिङ्गुनिर्यासा इति दशेमानि दीपनीयानि भवन्ति । (च.सू. 4th Chapter)
Piper longum L
Piper longum L
Piper retrofractum Vahl
Plumbago zeylanica L
Zingiber officinale Roscoe
Garcinia pedunculata Roxb ex Buch Ham
Piper nigrum Linn
Apium graveolens Linn
Seed of Semecarpus anacardium L.f.
Ferula asafoetida L
Root, Seed & Oil
RESEARCH PAPERS ON THE PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTION
TITLE OF THE PAPER
A REVIEW ON DEEPANA DRAVYA (APPETIZERS) OF BHAVAPRAKASHA NIGHANTU
Experimental evaluation of Deepana and Pachana Activity of Chitraka Kwatha w.s.r. to different Reduction Criteria
Conceptual Interpretation and Applied Facet of Deepana and Pachana
International Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Pharmacy
Journal of Ayurveda and Integrated Medical Sciences (JAIMS)
International Journal of Innovative Knowledge Concepts
Poornima B et al. A review on deepana dravya (appetizers) of Bhavaprakasha Nighantu. Int. J. Res. Ayurveda Pharm. 2018;9(3):171-173 http://dx.doi.org/10.7897/2277-4343.09386
B.N., Ashok Kumar et al. EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF DEEPANA AND PACHANA ACTIVITY OF CHITRAKA KWATHA WSR TO DIFFERENT REDUCTION CRITERIA. Journal of Ayurveda and Integrated Medical Sciences, v. 1, n. 4, p. 42 – 51, jan. 2017.
Vandana Singh et.al. “Conceptual Interpretation and Applied Facet of Deepana and Pachana“. International Journal of Innovative Knowledge Concepts. Volume 7. Issue No.1. January 2019. p.131-138.