PANCHALAXANA OF DRAVYA
1. रसादीनां पञ्चानां भूतानां यदाश्रयभूतं तद् द्रव्यम् । (भा. प्र.)
2. द्रव्यमाश्रयलक्षणम् पञ्चानाम् । (र. वै. सू)
The branch of Dravyaguna is defined as that part of Ayurveda which deals with the substances, their properties and actions in detail. The main intention of Dravyaguna is to have a proper understanding of the pharmacodynamics pertaining to different substances that are either being used as medicine or food by us in our daily life. Among the two more importance is given to medicinal substances as food substances are more elaborately dealt in the subject of Swastha Vritta. Thus to understand the subject of Dravyaguna, one has to have a clear idea of the concepts namely the concept of Rasa, Guna, Veerya, Vipaka, Prabhava, Dravya and Karma in detail from the perspective of the present branch. All these concepts have been dealt in the subjects like Shareera Kriya (Physiology), Padartha Vijnyana (Basic philosophy) and others but the study is based on the perspective of the branch in which it is dealt with. Hence it becomes essential to know the concepts from the perspective of Dravyaguna also. Thus here we will be dealing in the same in a detail manner. It is to be observed that the basis for all the present described concepts is the the concept of PANCHMAHABHUTA which has been clearly and elaborately dealt in the subject of PADARTHA VIJNYANA.
The concepts of Dravyaguna are 7 in number namely Dravya (Substance), Guna (Properties), Rasa (taste sensation), Veerya (potency or potentiated properties), Vipaka (Metabolites), Prabhava (Antagonistic or Synergetic properties) & Karma (Actions). These 7 concepts are known as SAPTAPADARTHA and form the core concepts of Dravyaguna. Among these the five namely Guna, Rasa, Veerya, Vipaka and Prabhava are the deviations in the main concept Guna or properties itself. They infact represent the different dimensions of substance and form the address of the substance. Thus these five are known as PANCHALAXANA of the substance. These five form the most important components to explain the pharmacodynamics in Ayurveda pharmacology. These concepts are all inter-related to each other and hence there is a particular sequence in which it is enumerated they are GUNA, RASA, VIPAKA, VEERYA AND PRABHAVA. The sequence is on the basis of the order of evolution and formulating these concepts.
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