TABLE OF CONTENT
- मन्द – Dull/Sluggish
- Definition of Manda Guna
- Description of मन्द गुण (Manda Guna)
- Benefits or Effects of मन्द गुण (Manda Guna)
- तीक्ष्ण – Penetrating
- Definition of Teekshna Guna
- Description of तीक्ष्ण गुण (Teekshna Guna)
- Benefits or Effects of तीक्ष्ण गुण (Teekshna Guna)
- Comparison chart of मन्द & तीक्ष्ण properties
The two properties that are supposed to be opposite to each other are being described here. The two properties are a sort to be considered as related to each other in terms of the intensity with which a relative effect can be observed. This emphasises that the two properties influence the pharmacokinetics of the substance considerably along with the other interdependent factors that are instrumental in the manifestation of certain action. Here, the intensity of activity in the body is decreased or increased by the मन्द or तीक्ष्ण properties respectively where their relative effects can be seen in the body namely the शमन or शोधन respectively. These two actions are infact the relative effect of the two respective properties resulting in decrease or increase in intensity of any action leading to these said actions and their effects.
Among the five Mahabutas, Prithvi and Jala are known for the property of compactness and binding which together increases the density and even weight of the object making their movement relatively sluggish or dull. While the other three namely Akasha, Vayu and Agni are known for the property of Vivarana (separation), Chala (movement) and Pachana (Disintegration) which together decrease the density of the object making their relative movement quick, sharp and precise. Hence these are attributed with the Manda and Teekshna Guna respectively.
Generally this property is equated to that which has the ability to retard the activity within the substance and also those which are associated with it. Hence it is equated to Dullness or Sluggish property of a particular substance and is regarded to supplement the same effect into the body. The equating of Manda Guna to Dull or sluggish is with regards to both its physical and chemical dimension. The placement of this Manda Guna property among the twenty selected properties shows that it is the most occuring property in the creation. The property assumes utmost importance basically due to its great influence over the body as it results in the retardation of various activity in the body considered as Shamana as told by Hemadri. The Shamana action is one of the primary medicinal actions that are being observed by the scholars. Hence, it is used as the basis for classifying the medicinal substances also considered under the label of Trividha Aushadha by Charaka and other scholars of Ayurveda. This property being the main cause for retardation of action or Shamana, it also becomes the basis for a line or methodology of treatment.
In the context of Dravyaguna, the sluggishness of the object is to be considered on the basis of retarding of activities present in the body. Chemically this can be equated to a Negative Catalyst which is defined as an agent that has the ability to retard a chemical reaction. This property of substances will assume a supportive definition in the context of Dravyaguna.
DEFINITION OF MANDA GUNA
There are various definitions for this property. But the one that is important from the context of Dravyaguna is being considered here. Thus two references are considered as mentioned below:
- यस्य शमने शक्तिः स मन्दः । (हेमाद्रि)
- मन्दो मात्राकरः स्मृतः । (सुश्रुत)
As per Hemadri the factor that is present in the substance and is responsible for the शमन (Shamana) effect on the body is to be considered as मन्द (Manda).
As per Sushruta, मन्द (Manda) is that factor present in the substance which is responsible for the control or slowing of activities in the body. It is that factor of the substance that makes the activity to proceed slowly thus taking a longer duration for it to accomplish.
DESCRIPTON OF MANDA GUNA
As the above definition goes the substance which is predominantly exhibits the ability to retard a activity more precisely the chemical activity or reaction (शमन) is considered to be मन्द (Manda) property. This forms the point of assessment with respect to the chemical character of the substance with respect to the property MANDA. As per the reference from Sharangadhara, the action शमन (Shamana) is defined as “न शोधयति न द्वेष्टि समान्दोषांस्तथोद्धतान् । समीकरोति विषमान्शमनं तथामृता ।।” which clearly gives the idea of how this property can be assessed.
The main cause for the above nature of the property MANDA is due to the fact that it is supposed to be manifested due to the predominance of पृथ्वी or जल महाभूत or both. It is primarily seen as the property of पृथ्वी महाभूत itself but the involvement of जल महाभूत cannot be ruled out as well. Thus the effect of these predominant components of the substance either single or both will decide the intensity of the property. Even the level of predominance will be instrumental in determining the intensity too.
BENEFITS OR EFFECTS OF MANDA GUNA
Any part of the body that is said to be predominant with the related महाभूत (Mahabhuta) will be affected leading to their increase or predominance. Thus all the components of the body namely दोष, धातु & मल which form the basic composition of the body are directly affected by the property. The effects of Manda Guna on these components are as under:
Based on the principle of the predominance of महाभूत (Mahabhuta) it is to be understood that most parts of the body is dominated with these two महाभूत (Mahabhuta) that are instrumental in the generation of this property. Thus, the use of substances which is predominant with this property will lead to the retardation of activities in the body thus increasing the bulkiness of the body parts (स्थूल) or simply increase of the body tissues (धातु वृद्धि). This is different from बृंहण (Brimhana) in terms of the quality of tissue as the quantity increase is resulted due to less or complete inactivity in case of Shamana.
With respect to the Dosha also the same chemistry of the महाभूत (Mahabhuta) is applied, where the Dosha with the similar composition is the कफ दोष (Kapha Dosha). Hence, the predominance of this property will lead to vitiation of the कफ दोष (Kapha Dosha) or its simple increase. As the quality is opposite to those mentioned for the वात दोष (Vata Dosha), it results in the control of the same. Here it is to be observed that due to the retardation action of the activity it influences more on पित्त दोष (Pitta Dosha) than वात दोष (Vata Dosha) leading to its control.
With respect to the effect on मल (Mala) the property will have an adverse one as the activity that will result in the formation of the bye-products tend to decrease thus leading to lesser production of मल (Mala).
The effect of the property has its own expression too. As the substance retards all activities in the body, the relative effect on the mental faculty is that this property will result in lethargic or lassitude of mental status.
DEFINITION OF TEEKSHNA GUNA
This Guna is taken as the opposite of the Manda Guna and it is generally equated to the property of Sharpness and like the earlier one it is said to attribute the same property to the body. The property assumes utmost importance in different contexts and have formed the basis for the treatment modalities too. Its ability to cut though determines the sharpness of the substance. Physically the property is denoted by the ability of the substance to cut through a continuous surface while chemically it stands for the ability to penetrate through the surface which is otherwise acts a barrier for others. As per Hemadri, the property has utmost importance like its opposite as it results in the activity of Shodhana. The Shodhana action is one of the primary medicinal actions like the Shamana action that are being observed as the basis of classifying medicinal substances under the label Trividha Aushadha by the scholars of Ayurveda. It also represent a class of treatment modalities too. This property assumes a special importance as it has the ability to penetrate and bypass the normal pathways of metabolism such that the action becomes quick and precise. It has the ability to enter into the various body systems through the shortest possible way available and hence is most desired in many quick acting medicinal substances. Hence this property is considered to be a one of the primary requirement for being administered to perform the Shodhana Chikitsa.
In the context of Dravyaguna, the sharpness or penetrating activity of the object is to be considered on the basis of how quick the substance has the ability to show its desired or undesired effect on the body. Chemically this can be considered as that substance which is highly reactive in nature. Thus, the property penetration or sharpness of the substance will assume a different dimension in the context of Dravyaguna.
- यस्य शोधने शक्तिः स तीक्ष्णः। (हेमाद्रि)
- दाहपाककरस्तीक्ष्णः स्रावणः । (सुश्रुत)
- तीक्ष्णं पित्तकरं प्रायोलेखनं कफवातहृत् । (भावप्रकाश)
As per Hemadri the factor that is present in the substance and is responsible for the शोधन (Shodhana) effect on the body is to be considered as तीक्ष्ण (Teekshna).
As per Sushruta it is that property which results in the effects like दाह (Daha) or burning sensation, पाक (Paka) or ripening and स्राव (Srava) or discharge.
As per Bhavaprakasha, तीक्ष्ण (Teekshna) is that factor present in the substance which is responsible for the substance to result in लेखन (Lekhana) or scraping. It vitiates पित्त (Pitta) while simultaneously controls vitiated कफ (Kapha) and वात (Vata).
DESCRIPTON OF TEEKSHNA GUNA
As the above definition goes the substance which is predominant with this property is considered to be having the ability to perform the action of penetrating into deeper parts of the body and react such that the bye products are formed and removed quickly. The process is considered as शोधन (Shodhana). In the present context, the ability to perform this activity of the substance forms the point of assessment with respect to the chemical character of the substance. The physical parameter of analysis with respect to this property can be understood by analysing the ability of the substance cut through the barrier or surface and penetrate deeply. Due to this activity, this property forms the important criterion for selecting the substance useful to perform the modality of वमन & विरेचन कर्म (Vamana & Virechana Karma) among the पञ्चकर्म (Panchakarma).
The main cause for the above nature of the property TEEKSHNA is due to the fact that it is supposed to be manifested due to the predominance of अग्नि. It is Primary property of अग्नि महाभूत. Thus the effect of this predominant component in the substance will decide the intensity of the property.
DESCRIPTON OF TEEKSHNA GUNA
Any part of the body that is said to be predominant with the related महाभूत (Mahabhuta) will be affected leading to their increase or predominance. Thus all the components of the body namely दोष, धातु & मल which form the basic composition of the body are directly affected by the property. The effects of Teekshna Guna on these components are as under:
Among the seven धातु (Dhatu), those which are predominated by either of the said महाभूत (Mahabhuta) is the रक्त (Rakta) which will be most affected. But its effect on the other धातु (Dhatu) can also be noticed where it enhances its metabolic activity by increasing the reactivity and metabolic activity. Hence, this property will lead to decrease in bulkiness of the body parts (लंघनम्) or simply decrease of the body tissues (धातु क्षय).
With respect to the Dosha also the same chemistry of the महाभूत (Mahabhuta) is applied, where the Dosha which is composed of these महाभूत (Mahabhuta) is पित्त दोष (Pitta Dosha). Hence, the predominance of this property will lead to vitiation of either पित्त दोष (Pitta Dosha) or its simple increase. As the quality is opposite to those mentioned for the कफ and वात दोष (Kapha and Vata Dosha), it results in the control of the same.
With respect to the effect on मल (Mala) too there will be increase in the expulsion of मल (Mala). As the reactivity of the substance leading to enhanced activity. Thus it facilitates quicker reactions and expulsion of the formed bye-products of these reactions. This inturn results in forceful expulsion of मल (excretory products) resulting in the effect of शोधन (Purification).
The effect of the property on the mental status can be seen as the one that increases क्षोभ (Kshobha) which represents an agitated mood. This is due to the fact that the substance that possesses this property is highly reactive in nature and penetrates into every part of the body. Being reactive itself, it increases the chemical reactivity of various processes in the body too. Here the mind responding to the condition of the body will get agitated and disturbed as the intensity of action is above the normalcy.
- Penetrating or Sharp
- Ability to cut through a surface
- Highly precipitative
- Pittakara & Kaphavatahara
- Shodhana or Accelarates reaction
- Increase excretion
- Increase Appetite
- Decrease strength & Bulkiness, increases precipitation like Daha (Burning), Paka (degeneration) and Srava (discharge)
- Alert mind
- चित्रक, भल्लातक