TABLE OF CONTENT
- सान्द्र – Sandra
- Definition of Sandra Guna
- Description of सान्द्र गुण (Sandra Guna)
- Benefits or Effects of सान्द्र गुण (Sandra Guna)
- द्रव – Drava
- Definition of Drava Guna
- Description of द्रव गुण (Drava Guna)
- Benefits or Effects of द्रव गुण (Drava Guna)
- Comparison chart of सान्द्र & द्रव properties
The two properties that are one opposite to each other are those that determine the condition of the substances. The property is more understood on the basis of consistency of the substance. The property depends on whether the substance has the consistency that makes it thick or thin which determine the level of Sandra or Drava property in it. Irrespective of which ever state the matter is, the property will determine the turbidity or solidity or fluidity of the same.
Among the five Mahabhutas, the properties mentioned here are mainly attributed to Prithvi and Jala respectively. The level predominance of these two relatively will be responsible for the manifestation of the property in the substance. It will also determine the nature of the substance and its presentation physically to a large extent. It is like the more it is thick or turbid, the slow it will be in its movement while the less it is then the more fluid it becomes paving way for an easy movement. The details of the two are as described below:
Generally this property is equated as that property which results in Solid or Turbid (Opaque or Thick) effect with respect to the consistency of the substance. If the substances is a solid in nature, then it is with respect to the compactness that its particles are bound together making it strong and opaque while the same is a liquid or a gas, then the thickness of the consistency that has resulted due to the suspended particles in the same making it turbid, thick or even opaque. It is quite obvious that this property is dependent on the particles of the substance and its relative compactness. The equating of Sandra Guna to Turbidity or Solidity is with regards to the physical dimension for easy understanding of the property and not its chemical characteristics. The property is attributed with the Prasadana (Nourishing) activity which shows that the substances has immense amount of nutrients that are provided to the body. Thus, the ability to increase the nutrition levels in the body form the chemical characteristic feature of the property.
In the context of Dravyaguna, the ability to provide nourishment and increase the nutritional levels form the basis of analysing the pharmacological effect on the body.
DEFINITION OF SANDRA GUNA
There are various definitions for this property. But the one that is important from the context of Dravyaguna is being considered here. Thus three references are considered as mentioned below:
- यस्य द्रव्यस्य प्रसादने शक्तिः स सान्द्रः । (हेमाद्रि)
- सान्द्रः स्थूलः स्याद्बन्धकारकः । (सु.सू. 46/420)
- सान्द्रो गुणः । बन्धकारक उपचयकारक इत्यर्थः । (ड)
As per Hemadri the factor that is present in the substance and is responsible for the प्रसादन (Prasadana) effect on the body is to be considered as सान्द्र (Sandra).
As per Sushruta, सान्द्र (Sandra) is that factor which is similar to that of the property स्थूल (Sthula) but is the cause for the बन्ध (Binding) effect.
The explanation given by Dalhana for the word बन्धकारक (Bandhakaraka) is that the substance with this property has the ability to give utmost nourishment (उपचय) thus leading to compactness.
DESCRIPTON OF SANDRA GUNA
As the above definition goes the substance which is predominant with this property has the ability to give adequate nourishment (प्रसादन) to the body components namely Dosha, Dhatu and Mala. Physically, the property is understood by the ability to make the substance dense or thick thus making it solid or if liquid then highly turbid with the high concentration of the suspended substances. Suspension of the particles in the liquid media usually involves those particles that are insoluble in it. The turbidity is defined in the English Cambridge dictionary with respect to chemistry as the measure of the number of small pieces of matter in the liquid. The definition shows that there are a lot of suspended particles that don’t dissolve but only get suspended so that they go with the flow of the liquid. The property of turbidity is associated with the liquids where the solid particles are suspended in it. Here it is to be understood that the particle concentration is so much that it makes the liquid comparatively thick and less mobile. When the same is dealt with the solid substances, the property gets referred to as solidity. This is defined as the quality of the substance to be hard and firm. Here the particles of the substance are more compact and are held together firmly. Thus whatever state of matter it may be there is high concentration of particles that will be supplying the necessary energy or supplementation to the body.
The main cause for the above nature of the property SANDRA is due to the fact that it is supposed to be manifested due to the predominance of पृथ्वी महाभूत which makes the material dense and thick.
BENEFITS OR EFFECTS OF SANDRA GUNA
Any part of the body that is said to be predominant with the related महाभूत (Mahabhuta) will be affected leading to their increase or predominance. Thus all the components of the body namely दोष, धातु & मल which form the basic composition of the body are directly affected by the property. The effects of Sandra Guna on these components are as under:
The property being related to the पृथ्वी महाभूत, this becomes a quite good material for the supplementation to many of the body components. It ability to perform the action of प्रसादन (Nourishment) is the major benefit which will result in the increase of body tissues (धातु वृद्धि). The ability to nourish will make the body components much compact and strong too.
With respect to the Dosha, there is all the very chance of the increase in the कफ दोष (Kapha Dosha) as it is having the similarity in source namely the पृथ्वी महाभूत (Pithvi Mahabhuta). But it’s inability to move quickly will not make the Dosha to move resulting in the stagnation of the same and not result in the further vitiation of कफ दोष (Kapha Dosha). With respect to the वात दोष (Vata Dosha) this may not cause a direct vitiation but has the ability to obstruct the movement resulting in a vitiated condition. Lastly the पित्त दोष (Pitta Dosha) will become pacified due to the property.
With respect to the effect on मल (Mala) the property will lead to increase in the thickness of मल (Mala) which makes it more difficult to be evacuated leading to decrease in the frequency of excretion.
The effect of the property on mind is that being a manifestation of पृथ्वी महाभूत (Prithvi Mahabhuta), this will result in the increase nutritional status but will also result in the lethargy of mind and even may cause drowsiness too.
DEFINITION OF DRAVA GUNA
This Guna is taken as the opposite of the Sandra Guna and hence it is generally equated to the property of Fluidity and like the earlier one it is said to attribute the same property to the body. As per the english Dictionary it is defined as A continuous amorphous substance whose molecules move freely past one another and that has the tendency to assume the shape of its container. It gives the ability to the substance to move freely and also assume the shapes that it gets associated with. The equating of Drava Guna to fluidity will give the the physical dimension and even its chemical characteristics. The property is attributed with the Vilodhana (Spreading) effect or the ability to spread quickly whether it is as per the physical sense or chemical sense. Here physically, we need to consider the ability of the substance to spread and traverse into any part that it comes in contact with either physically or even through the chemical way where the molecules of the substance will spread throughout the body quickly all over the body making it reach into the remotest corner of the space in the body in a short span of time.
In the context of Dravyaguna, the ability to traverse chemically into the remotest and deepest part of the body in a short span of time or Vilodana is to be considered as a pharmacological effect on the body.
- यस्य विलोडने शक्तिः स द्रवः। (हेमाद्रि)
- द्रवः प्रक्लेदनः परः……. । (सु.सू)
- द्रवो गुणः । प्रक्लेदन आर्द्रभावकरः । (ड)
As per Hemadri the property that is present in the substance and is responsible for the विलोडन (Spreading) effect on the body is to be considered as द्रव (Drava).
As per Sushruta, the property is the one that has the capacity of making the surface or substance wet that it gets in contact with (प्रक्लेदन). To this Dalhana has claried that the word represents the ability to traverse into the surface or substance making it wet with the substance.
DESCRIPTON OF DRAVA GUNA
As the above definition goes the substance which is predominant with this property has the ability traverse into the substances or surfaces that it comes in contact wih. Chemically or physically, the substance with this property will be display the fluidity nature that it possess. Here as per the definition told by Sushruta and the related commentary by Dalhana clarifies that it should be a substance which is liquid. This is due to the fact that only liquids have the ability to wet the things or surface by attributing moisture and not gases even though the property of fluidity is present in both liquids and gases. In the present context of Guruvadi Guna, we need to understand that the property of Chala or Sara Guna is also represents mobility like the Drava but the difference is that it in the former it emphasizes on the character of movement while in the latter the definition emphasizes on the ability to give moisture along with mobility.
The main cause for the above nature of the property DRAVA is due to the fact that it is supposed to be manifested by the predominance of जल महाभूत as per the text Karikavali and is also sometimes seen in अग्नि महाभूत, and पृथ्वी महाभूत in certain forms like पित्त दोष (Pitta Dosha) and Clay respectively. But in any case there is involvement of the जल महाभूत for it is the one that provides the moisture or क्लेद (Kleda).
DESCRIPTION OF DRAVA GUNA
Any part of the body that is said to be predominant with the related महाभूत (Mahabhuta) will be affected leading to their increase or predominance. Thus all the components of the body namely दोष, धातु & मल which form the basic composition of the body are directly affected by the property. The effects of Drava Guna on these components are as under:
The effect of the property is basically its ability to traverse or Vilodana (Spreading) into deeper parts of the body at the quickest level. It also has the ability of hydrating wherever it traverses. Thus it may either result in thinning of the body components as it can increase certain Dhatus (tissues) mainly Rasa and Rakta. This may result in lessen the concentration and make the Dhatu weaker and flabby. So there may be increase in the bulkiness of the Dhatu but decrease in its strength and consistency. Along with it it quickens the movement leading to the loss of Dhatu (धातुक्षय).
With respect to the Dosha the property being generated by जल महाभूत (Jala Mahabhuta) will lead to vitiation of कफ दोष (Kapha Dosha) and being the property of पित्त दोष (Pitta Dosha), it will also vitiate पित्त दोष (Pitta Dosha). With respect to वात दोष (Vata Dosha) it will be controlled as it attributes moisture along with quick movements.
Here the effect on मल (Mala) is that it will make the surface moist and even the bye-products of metabolism will become more dilute allowing quick and easy evacuation. Thus it will increase the quantity along with thinning of it. It will also increase the frequency of excretion too (मलवृद्धि).
The effect of the property on the mind is basically to be analysed on the basis of its ability to traverse into the system. As it is the main manifestation of जल or sometimes अग्नि महाभूत, the effect will be observed to be relative to it. Hence, it may result in increase of memory or intelligence respectively when used based on the predominant Mahabhuta.