।। ॐ श्री धन्वन्तरये नमः ।।

TABLE OF CONTENT

  1. Introduction
  2. श्लक्ष्ण – Shlakshna
    1. Definition of Shlakshna Guna
    2. Description of श्लक्ष्ण गुण (Shlakshna Guna)
    3. Benefits or Effects of श्लक्ष्ण गुण (Shlakshna Guna)
  3. खर – Light
    1. Definition of Khara Guna
    2. Description of खर गुण (Khara Guna)
    3. Benefits or Effects of खर गुण (Khara Guna)
  4. Comparison chart of श्लक्ष्ण & खर properties
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INTRODUCTION

The two properties are the one opposite to each other. The property is more understood on the basis of the ability of the substance to generate the effect of smoothness or roughness with respect to the surface with which it comes in contact is to be considered. The determination is with respect to how the substance in question attributes to smoothen or roughen the surface or processes outside or inside the body. That is why the action of healing and scraping is been attributed to the said actions of Shlakshna and Khara respectively. On the whole the properties are not that powerful in making their presence felt like the Guru or Sheeta properties and that is the probable reason that they are not considered among the group of Shadvidha upakrama as per Charaka nor in the list of Veerya by others

Among the five Mahabutas, the properties mentioned here are mainly attributed to Agni and Prithvi or Vayu respectively. But the involvement of only one Mahabhuta in the present properties are difficult to be understood. There is quite a notable involvement of the other Mahabhutas as well. 

।। सर्वे जनाः सुखिनो भवन्तु सर्वे सन्तु निरामय ।।​

श्लक्ष्ण गुण – Shlakshna Guna

Generally this property is equated as that property which results in Smooth (even surface without cuts or dents) effect of a surface with regards to a substance and is regarded to supplement the same effect into the body. But it can also be taken as a property that facilitates smooth performance of the various biochemical reactions in the body. The equating of Shlakshna Guna to smooth is with regards to the physical dimension or understanding of the property and not its chemical characteristics. The property is attributed with the Ropana (Healing) activity which shows that it corrects the cuts and dents in the surface. With respect to its chemical characteristic features, it can be attributed with the activity of repair or healing in the body where it enhances the process of healing either within or outside the body. A process of healing requires a series of biochemical reactions which is enhanced to perform quickly by the use of those substances that possess this property. 

In the context of Dravyaguna, the ability to smoothen the surface and the ability to heal faster is to be considered as both have a considerable pharmacological effect on the body. 

DEFINITION OF SHLAKSHNA GUNA

There are various definitions for this property. But the one that is important from the context of Dravyaguna is being considered here. Thus three references are considered as mentioned below:

  1. यस्य द्रव्यस्य रोपणे शक्तिः स श्लक्ष्ण । (हेमाद्रि)
  2. श्लक्ष्णः स्नेहं विनाऽपि स्यात् कठिनोऽपि हि चिक्कणः  । (भावप्रकाश)
  3. श्लक्ष्ण: पिच्छिलवज्ज्ञेयः । (सु.सू.)

As per Hemadri the factor that is present in the substance and is responsible for the रोपण (Ropana) effect on the body is to be considered as श्लक्ष्ण (Shlakshna).

As per Bhavaprakasha, श्लक्ष्ण (Shlakshna) is that factor present in the substance which is ro give a smooth or oily appearance but doesn’t possess any moisture or stickyness (चिक्कण). 

As per Sushruta, the property is very similar to that of पिच्छिल (Picchila) property.

DESCRIPTON OF SHLAKSHNA GUNA

As the above definition goes the substance which is predominant with this property is responsible for aiding the process of रोपण (Healing). In general, the process of healing is consisting of 4 steps namely Haemostasis, Inflammation, Proliferation and Maturation. The process involves a long chain of biochemical signals and reactions which may get slowed or prevented entirely. In any case, the process is sure to take certain amount of time which may be ranging from a week to months depending on the size, depth, etc characters of the wound. The substance with this property has the ability to control the factors that are responsible for delaying the process of healing or decrease the time duration by quickening the process or even both. The process which may be internally or externally is the basic parameter of assessment too. Even discontinuity of the surfaces mainly skin that have split due to the environmental factors will be healed and made continuous by the property making the surface smooth and without any stickyness too.

The main cause for the above nature of the property SHLAKSHNA is due to the fact that it is supposed to be manifested due to the predominance of अग्नि, as per Nagarjuna while it is said to be due to जल  महाभूत as per Sushruta. It is also said to be due to the आकाश महाभूत by Charaka. But basically, when we observe the set of actions that are being enlisted for it, this appears to have the emerged due to the effect of अग्नि महाभूत. This is because without the heat the smoothness in whichever form is not possible. With respect to healing too, the activity of different reactions are a necessity where both are the characters of the अग्नि महाभूत

BENEFITS OR EFFECTS OF SHLAKSHNA GUNA

Any part of the body that is said to be predominant with the related महाभूत (Mahabhuta) will be affected leading to their increase or predominance. Thus all the components of the body namely दोष, धातु & मल which form the basic composition of the body are directly affected by the property. The effects of Shlakshna Guna on these components are as under:

DHATU

Even though this is resulted due to अग्नि महाभूत, the property will facilitate easy transformation of the धातु resulting in the increase of the body tissues (धातु वृद्धि). The smoothness of the surface will help in the easy movement of the contents which further aids in easy transportation of contents and augment the nutrition to the body parts amicably.

DOSHA

With respect to the Dosha, the even though the property is generated by अग्नि महाभूत (Agni Mahabhuta), the usual chemistry will not be applied. The property is observed to result in the further vitiation of कफ दोष (Kapha Dosha) because the property will result in the smoothness of surfaces, which makes difficult for the कफ दोष (Kapha Dosha) to stick. Hence, the property will lead to कफ विलयन (Kapha vilayana) in particular. But with respect to वात दोष (Vata Dosha), this property will result in its pacification as it has the ability to repair the body tissues. Being a slight passive the effect of पित्त दोष (Pitta Dosha) is that it may tend to vitiate it due to the similarity in the महाभूत (Mahabhuta) configuration. 

MALA

With respect to the effect on मल (Mala) the property will lead to smooth evacuation leading to increase of frequency and complete excretion (मलप्रवर्तन). 

MANAS

The effect of the property on mind is that being a manifestation of अग्नि महाभूत (Agni Mahabhuta), this is useful in the increase of those activities that are associated with it like the intelligence, power of grasping the contents or in general a memory enhancer. 

।। सर्वे भद्राणि पश्यन्तु माकश्चिद्दुःखभाग्भवेत् ।।

खर गुण – Khara Guna

DEFINITION OF KHARA GUNA

This Guna is taken as the opposite of the Shlakshna Guna and hence it is generally equated to the property of Roughness and like the earlier one it is said to attribute the same property to the body. It is taken as that property which makes the surface rough and that it facilitates the same performance on the body. The equating of Khara Guna to rough is which regards to the physical dimension or understanding of the property and not its chemical characteristics. The property is attributed with the Lekhana (Scarification) therapy in a physical sense while the same is equated to dyslipidemia or मेदोहर (Medohara) effect. This is due to the fact the substance will have rough surface and will do the scarification when used which is undoubted the major physical character of the property. But in some instances they remove the depositions like lipids, cholesterol or even decrease the tissues too thus reducing the bulk and weight of the individual. This forms the chemical character for assessment with respect to the property. In other words it results in the enhancement of certain chemical reactions which will result in increased catabolism of the body leading to increase use of energy and usage of stored energy of the body.

But in the context of Dravyaguna, the ability to roughen the surface and the ability to perform the action of Lekhana are to be considered as a pharmacological effect on the body. 

  1. यस्य लेखने शक्तिः स खरः। (हेमाद्रि)
  2. कर्कशो विशदो यथा । (सु.सू)

As per Hemadri the factor that is present in the substance and is responsible for the लेखने (Lekhane) effect on the body is to be considered as खर (Khara).

As per Sushruta, the property is having the similar features of विशद (Vishada) property. 

DESCRIPTON OF KHARA GUNA

As the above definition goes the substance which is predominant with this property is the ability to scrape or create a scar on the external surface or skin. This forms the point of assessment with respect to the physical character of the substance in reference to the property KHARA. The chemical parameter of analysis with respect to this property is the ability of the substance to slim the individual by removing the lipids, cholesterol or even tissues for that matter in the form of energy which effects in weight reduction and bulkiness of the person. 

The main cause for the above nature of the property KHARA is due to the fact that it is supposed to be manifested by the predominance of वायु महाभूत as per Nagarjuna whereas Charaka is of the opinion that it is वायु महाभूत associated with पृथ्वी महाभूत. But Sushruta is of the opinion that it is वायु महाभूत associated with अग्नि महाभूत. But in either case, it is to be noted that the presence of वायु महाभूत is there which shows its strong influence in the property. 

DESCRIPTON OF KHARA GUNA

Any part of the body that is said to be predominant with the related महाभूत (Mahabhuta) will be affected leading to their increase or predominance. Thus all the components of the body namely दोष, धातु & मल which form the basic composition of the body are directly affected by the property. The effects of Khara Guna on these components are as under:

DHATU

The effect of the property is basically its ability to do the Lekhana (Scarification) or Medohara (dyslipidemia) or even in the control or decrease of Hypercholesterolemia in the body. Thus, it has the ability to increase the biochemical processes or reactions in the body thereby using more use of energy. This will result in the use of extra energy thereby decreasing the lipids or cholesterol levels in the body. It also decreases the bulkiness of the body. But due to the action, there will be increase in digestion or metabolic reactions wherein it will lead to loss of nutrition and hence will result in धातुक्षय (Dhatu Kshaya).

DOSHA

With respect to the Dosha the property being generated by वायु महाभूत (Vayu Mahabhuta) will lead to vitiation of वात दोष ( Vata Dosha) while it pacifies or removes the कफ दोष (Kapha Dosha) as it does the process of liquefaction or removal of excess lipids or cholesterol in particular. WIth regards to पित्त दोष (Pitta Dosha), there may be aslight increase or mild vitiation of the same. 

MALA

Here the effect on मल (Mala) is that it will make the surface rough which will hamper their movement. The bulkiness of excretory products may reduce and will also result in conditions like constipation too. 

MANAS

The effect of the property on the mind or emotions is that due to the effect of लेखन (Lekhana) there will be considerable amount of धातु क्षय (Dhatu Kshaya) which will lead to tiredness. this will inturn make the mind surrounded by melancholy (sadness without any specific reason) or despair. 

।। ॐ शान्ति शान्ति शान्तिः ।।

COMPARISON CHART OF THE श्लक्ष्ण (SHLAKSHNA) & खर (KHARA) PROPERTIES

CRITERIA

  1. Name
  2. English equivalent term
  3. Physical Equivalent
  4. Chemical Equivalent
  5. Action on Dosha
  6. Action on Dhatu
  7. Action on Mala
  8. Action on Agni (Appetite)
  9. General Action on Body
  10. General Action on Mind
  11. Panchamahabhuta Base
  12. Examples

आग्नेय गुण (SHLAKSHNA GUNA)

  1. श्लक्ष्ण
  2. Smoothness
  3. Smooth on touch 
  4. Enhances healing process
  5. Kaphakara and Vatahara 
  6. Dhatuvriddhi 
  7. Increase excretion 
  8. Increase Digestion 
  9. Increase strength & Bulkiness
  10. Energised mind, enhance intelligence
  11. अग्नि
  12.  कुमारि, शतावरी

सौम्य गुण (KHARA GUNA)

  1. खर
  2. Roughness
  3. Produce scars
  4. Reduce weight
  5. Kaphahara and Vatakara 
  6. Dhatukshaya 
  7. Decrease excretion 
  8. Increase Appetite 
  9. Decrease strength & Bulkiness 
  10. Despair and melancholy
  11. वायु
  12.  शिरीष, असन

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