।। ॐ श्री धन्वन्तरये नमः ।।

TABLE OF CONTENT

  1. Introduction
  2. स्थिर – Stable
    1. Definition of Sthira Guna
    2. Description of स्थिर गुण (Sthira Guna)
    3. Benefits or Effects of स्थिर गुण (Sthira Guna)
  3. चल/सर – Mobile
    1. Definition of Chala/Sara Guna
    2. Description of चल/सर गुण (Chala/Sara Guna)
    3. Benefits or Effects of चल/सर गुण (Chala/Sara Guna)
  4. Comparison chart of स्थिर & चल/सर properties
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INTRODUCTION

The two properties are the one opposite to each other. The two properties are understood on the basis of a factor namely mobility of the substance. Thus if the substance is have the property of Chala or Sara, then it is able to move freely while Sthira results in imbolity of the substance. Even though the mobility of the substance is dependent on several factors like the structure of the substance, free spaces within its structure, etc, still in Ayurveda, the two are considered to be the basic property and thus stands out to be a different one when compared to the other. The mobility of various substance is dependent on various factors like solubility of the substance in the medium namely water or fat. If the solubility, charge that the components of the absorbed nutrients carry, etc. Thus, the substance can be considered to have the property of Sthira or Sara depending on these properties. Generally, it is being considered to be as physically mobile or immobile, the chemical character is at times very different or even when the opposite character of the physical manifestation too.

Among the five Mahabhutas, Prithvi is known for the property of immobility and stable which makes the substance to be having the ability to be firm while the Mahabhuta namely Jala is considered to be instrumental for the Chala or Sara as per Sushruta. But it is to be observed that mobility is the main property of Vayu and is also seen in Agni Mahabhuta as per the properties elicited in books like Tarka Sangraha. Hence, it is to be understood that it is seen in the three Mahabhutas namely Jala, Agni and Vayu. Hence these are attributed with the Sthira and Sara Guna respectively.

।। सर्वे जनाः सुखिनो भवन्तु सर्वे सन्तु निरामय ।।​

स्थिर गुण – Sthira Guna

Generally this property is equated as that property which results in Immobility effect of a particular substance and is regarded to supplement the same effect into the body. The equating of Sthira Guna to immobility is with regards to both the physical and chemical dimension of the property. The property is attributed with the action of Dharana by Hemadri which means that this property will be able to initiate the action of Dharana in the body. The ability to assess the presence of the quality will be possible physically by the inability to move freely while chemically with the inability by the effect of Dharana (Collecting or Retaining) action in the body.

But in the context of Dravyaguna, the retention of the object is to be taken into consideration rather than the physical mobility of the substance. Thus, the property Sthira of substance will be inline with the definition of Hemadri in the context of Dravyaguna.

DEFINITION OF STHIRA GUNA

There are various definitions for this property. But the one that is important from the context of Dravyaguna is being considered here. Thus two references are considered as mentioned below:

  1. यस्य द्रव्यस्य धारणे शक्तिः स स्थिरः । (हेमाद्रि)
  2. स्थिरो वातमलस्तम्भी । (भावप्रकाश)

As per Hemadri the factor that is present in the substance and is responsible for the धारण (Dharana) effect on the body is to be considered as स्थिर (Sthira).

As per Bhavaprakasha, स्थिर (Sthria) is that factor present in the substance which is responsible for the blocking of the movement with respect to वात (Vata) and the मल (Mala) or bye-products of metabolism. 

DESCRIPTON OF STHIRA GUNA

As the above definition goes the substance which is predominant with this property is considered to be the one that is having less or no mobility. Infact the point of assessment with respect to the property will be the ability to make the body strong and toned. Both physically and even chemically, immobility is a very important property which determines how the components present in the substance gets transported from one region to another in the body. Hence, immobility is a character that is seen to be the assessment criteria for both physical and chemical parameters which is in the level of gross structure and micro-component structure respectively. The mobility of the substance is based on various factors namely solubility in solvents especially water and fat as the two are the major medium in the body, Charges that the components carry where most of the components which are cations (Positive charged ions) tend to become immobile and even the size of the molecules were too large especially when the molecules have moisture associated, then they cannot move into the pathways or channels thus causing immobility. 

The main cause for the above nature of the property STHIRA is due to the fact that it is supposed to be manifested due to the predominance of पृथ्वी महाभूत. It is Primary property of पृथ्वी महाभूत and is hence there is the predominance of components in the substance that are compact and hard not only in mobility but also in dissolving. The level of predominance of the Mahabhuta will determine the intensity of the property. 

BENEFITS OR EFFECTS OF STHIRA GUNA

Any part of the body that is said to be predominant with the related महाभूत (Mahabhuta) will be affected leading to their increase or predominance. Thus all the components of the body namely दोष, धातु & मल which form the basic composition of the body are directly affected by the property. The effects of Sthira Guna on these components are as under:

DHATU

As per the reference from Sushruta Samhita, the property that helps in restricting the degenerating of body parts namely Kesha (Hair), Smashru (Mustache), Roma (Body hairs), Asthi (Bones), Nakha (Nails), Danta (Teeth), Sira (Veins), Snayu (Ligaments), Dhamani (Arteries) and Retas (Semen) is Sthira property. It provides the nourishment to a level that it increases the strength of the body making it strong simply increase of the strength or viability of body tissues (धातु वृद्धि).

DOSHA

With respect to the Dosha also the same chemistry of the महाभूत (Mahabhuta) is applied, where the Dosha with the similar composition is the कफ दोष (Kapha Dosha). Hence, the predominance of this property will lead to vitiation of the कफ दोष (Kapha Dosha) or its simple increase. As the quality is opposite to those mentioned for the वात दोष (Vata Dosha), it results in the control of the same.  But like the character of Manda Guna (मन्द गुण), even this property will result in the blockage (स्तम्भ)of the pathways resulting in the indirect increase of वात दोष (Vata Dosha).

MALA

With respect to the effect on मल (Mala) too there will be less movement resulting in the obstruction (स्तम्भन) of मल (Mala). Hence the bye-products tends to decrease in quantity but their evacuation is decreased. This is due to the reason that the movement is very slow with respect to the components of the substance there by the conversion too is delayed owing to the slow down of the metabolic processes and thus the bye-products are also not resulted.

MANAS

The effect of the property has its own expression too. Here due to the slow mobility effect of the property the various delay in the process results which may have its relative effect on the mental faculty as well. Thus, it may result in enormous amount of nutrition but slow in its movement will lead to delayed activity of मनस् (Manas). 

।। सर्वे भद्राणि पश्यन्तु माकश्चिद्दुःखभाग्भवेत् ।।

चल/सर गुण – Chala/Sara Guna

DEFINITION OF CHALA/SARA GUNA

This Guna is taken as the opposite of the Sthira Guna and hence it is generally equated to the property of Mobility and like the earlier one it is said to attribute the same property to the body. The equating of the property to mobility becomes the criteria of assessment of both the physical and chemical levels with respect to its gross and micro structure respectively. The property determines how the components of the substance are transported from one region to another. The mobility of the components of the substance is based on the ability to dissolve, ionisation and size of the particles. These are responsible not only in the chemical level but also in the physical level of assessment too. 

But in the context of Dravyaguna, the mobility of the substance is more on the movement of the particles or components of the substance within the body.  Thus, the property mobility or the ability of the substance to get transported from one region to the other will assume as a definition in the context of Dravyaguna.

  1. यस्य प्रेरणे शक्तिः स सरः। (हेमाद्रि)
  2. सरस्तेषां प्रवर्तकः । (भावप्रकाश)
  3. सरोऽनुलोमनः प्रोक्तः । (सु. सू. 46/422)

As per Hemadri the factor that is present in the substance and is responsible for the प्रेरण (Prerana) effect in the body is to be considered as सर (Sara).

As per Bhavaprakasha, सर (Sara) is that factor present in the substance which is responsible for प्रवर्तन (Movement). 

As per Sushruta, the property that results in अनुलोमन (Anulomana) or the proper normal movement is सर (Sara)

DESCRIPTION OF CHALA/SARA GUNA

As the above definition goes the substance which is predominant with this property is considered to act as that which initiates movement or प्रेरण (Prerana). In other words, the property will result in the quick movement of the components present in the substance. This is possible if the substance has the ability to dissolve in the solvents namely water and fat with respect to our body because absorption and assimilation is dependent on the ability to dissolve in the two important media. If the components of the substance are readily soluble, then it traverses the different layers with ease else, it will be prevented from doing so. It is also possible to have a quick spreading of the components through ionisation. This results in the ionic condition of the particles where the move through the ionic exchange or ionic channels where specific ions are moved freely in and out while the others are prevented. Especially anions (Negative charged ions) are more freely mobile than their counterparts. Another factor that deals with the mobility is the size of the particles where larger the size slower is the mobility. Hence if any of the factors are favourable then the substance will be quick in its movement. All these are to be considered as the chemical parameters to assess the property. 

The main cause for the above nature of the property CHALA or SARA is due to the fact that it is supposed to be manifested due to the predominance of जल महाभूत  as per Sushruta. But the property is also seen अग्नि  or वायु महाभूत as it is the main property of वायु महाभूत which is mentioned in the books like Tarka Sangraha. Hence it is to be understood that is associated with all the three Mahabhutas namely जल, वायु and अग्नि. Even the level of predominance will be instrumental in determining the intensity too.

DESCRIPTON OF CHALA/SARA GUNA

Any part of the body that is said to be predominant with the related महाभूत (Mahabhuta) will be affected leading to their increase or predominance. Thus all the components of the body namely दोष, धातु & मल which form the basic composition of the body are directly affected by the property. The effects of Sara or Chala Guna on these components are as under:

DHATU

The property basically initiates quicker movement of components (प्रेरण) which results in quicker conversion and depletion of the Dhatu or tissues. Thus it results in loss of strength and even bulkiness of the body tissues resulting in total loss of the धातु (Dhatu) or  simply decrease of the body tissues (धातु क्षय).

DOSHA

With respect to the Dosha also the same chemistry of the महाभूत (Mahabhuta) is applied, where the Dosha which is composed of these महाभूत (Mahabhuta) are वात,  पित्त दोष and even the कफ दोष (Vata Pitta & Kapha Dosha). Hence, the predominance of this property has the ability to vitiate all the three Doshasa namely will lead to vitiation of either वात, पित्त and कफ दोष (Vata, Pitta and Kapha Dosha). But here the increase of कफ दोष (Kapha Dosha) is due to the Vilayana and not the in terms of the quantity of it. 

MALA

With respect to the effect on मल (Mala) too there will be decrease in bulkiness of the same. But the ability to move quickly or increased mobility will result increase in frequency of excretion leading to evacuation of loose or liquid concentrated bye products. Thus there will be decrease in the bye-product formation resulting in the fall of bulkiness of मल (excretory products) but increase in evacuation.  

MANAS

The effect of the property has its own expression on मनस् (Mind)  too. As the substance gets easily diffused, it reaches every part of the body including mind and give the possible nourishment ot it. Thus, it gives instant energy leading to increase in the alertness of mind along with proper functioning. Thus, the relative effect on the mental faculty is that this property will result in mental alertness or energised mind. 

।। ॐ शान्ति शान्ति शान्तिः ।।

COMPARISON CHART OF THE स्थिर (STHIRA) & चल/सर (CHALA/SARA) PROPERTIES

CRITERIA

  1. Name
  2. English equivalent term
  3. Physical Equivalent
  4. Chemical Equivalent
  5. Action on Dosha
  6. Action on Dhatu
  7. Action on Mala
  8. Action on Agni (Appetite)
  9. General Action on Body
  10. General Action on Mind
  11. Panchamahabhuta Base
  12. Examples

आग्नेय गुण (CHALA/SARA GUNA)

  1. चल/सर
  2. Mobility
  3. Easily transported 
  4. Easily diffuses
  5. Vatakara, Pittakara and Kaphavilayana 
  6. Dhatuhrasa or Shithila
  7. Increase excretion 
  8. Increase Appetite 
  9. Decrease strength & Bulkiness
  10.  Alert and energised mind
  11. जल, वायु, अग्नि
  12.  त्रिवृत्, हरीतकी 

सौम्य गुण (STHIRA GUNA)

  1. स्थिर
  2. Immobile
  3. Moves slowly or stagnant
  4. Less or no diffusion
  5. Kaphakara and Vatakara 
  6. Brimhana or Dhatukara 
  7. Decrease excretion 
  8. Decrease Appetite 
  9. Increase strength & Tones the body 
  10. Lassitude and lethargic mind
  11. पृथ्वि,
  12.  शुक्ति, शंख

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