।। ॐ श्री धन्वन्तरये नमः ।।


  1. Introduction
  2. विशद – Clear
    1. Definition of विशद गुण (Vishada Guna)
    2. Description of विशद गुण (Vishada Guna)
    3. Benefits or Effects of विशद गुण (Vishada Guna)
  3. पिच्छल – Sticky
    1. Definition of पिच्छल गुण (Picchala Guna)
    2. Description of पिच्छल गुण (Picchala Guna)
    3. Benefits or Effects of पिच्छल गुण (Picchala Guna)
  4. Comparison chart of विशद & पिच्छल properties


Among the twenty properties that are considered under this group, the two namely Vishada and Picchila are the last Set of opposite properties as enlisted by Vagbhata in his book Astanga Hridaya. The two properties are usually have a considerable influence on the body as they are responsible for the action of other properties namely shlakshna and snigdha as one will result in smoothness which can only happen when there is clarity while the other can only result when it can stick. Hence the property Picchila is one among the property that are considered to be among. the eight veerya as told by Sushruta which shows the importance and influence of the property. Here the property is based on the ability of the substance to retain the moisture such that it sticks to the surface with which it is associated. When the moisture is lost the substance will be dominant with vishada while when it can hold the moisture then it will result in stickiness or picchila.

Among the five Mahabhutas, Akasha, Vayu, Agni and Prithvi are known to possess the property of Vishada. While the Picchila property is known to be possessed by the Jala. 

।। सर्वे जनाः सुखिनो भवन्तु सर्वे सन्तु निरामय ।।​

विशद गुण – Vishada Guna

The property Vishada is generally equated to the property that is considered as Clearness or Cleanliness and the ability of the substance that can clean a surface or pathway or any such thing which is regarded to supplement the same effect into the body.  The equating of Vishada Guna to Cleanliness or clarity by nature is with regards to both the physical dimension while with respect to its chemical characteristic is the ability of the substance to react with the different depositing objects such that the part where it has deposited is been removed or cleared or cleaned. The ability of the substance to clear or clean is either by reacting with the sticking substance or by removing the moisture from the impurity that is making it stick or deposit on the surface. Most of the substance that is used in the process are hydrophobic or hygroscopic or hydrophyllic in nature. This makes the sticking material lose its integrity and thus avoid sticking. In either of the case, there is removal or absorption of moisture from the sticking substance. Thus the specific ability will be the basis of the chemical character of the substance having the Vishada property. 

The property is associated to the action of Kshalana which stands for the ability to clean or clear as per Hemadri which depicts the nature of the substance to the clean the substances that have the ability to stick to various surfaces. Here too the character of which is explained as the chemical character is to be considered here too. The cleaning action is brought about by dissolving in the water or other sticky substance like oils and split themselves which further repulse the droplets causing emulsification of fats while the hydrophyllic part dissolves in water making it decrease the surface tension thus breaking it apart and rendering the surface clean.

In the context of Dravyaguna, the clearing or cleaning action refers to the ability of the substance remove the substance that is sticking to the surface along with prevention of the same from again getting deposited into it. This is more in line with the definitions given by different scholars with respect to the property. 


There are various definitions for this property. But the one that is important from the context of Dravyaguna is being considered here. Thus two references are considered as mentioned below:

  1. यस्य द्रव्यस्य क्षालने शक्तिः स विशद । (हेमाद्रि)
  2. विशदो विपरीतोऽस्मात् क्लेदाचूषणरोपणः  ।  (सु.सू. 46/417)
  3. विपरीतोऽस्मात् इति असन्धानोऽजीवनोऽश्लेषी चा; क्लेदाचूषणः इति आर्द्रीभावनिनाशकर इत्यर्थः । (डल्हण)
  4. क्लेदच्छेदकरः ख्यातो विशदो व्रणरोपणः । (भा.प्र.)

As per Hemadri the factor that is present in the substance and is responsible for the क्षालने (Kshalana) effect on the body is to be considered as विशद (Vishada).

As per Sushruta, विशद (Vishada) is that factor present in the substance which is responsible removing the क्लेद (Kled) or moisture from a surface or आचूषण (absorb) moisture and रोपण (Healing).

The reference is further clarified by Dalhana where the functionality is explained as that which leads to breakage of bonds, destruction of life and non stickiness along with absorption of moisture. 

Even Bhavaprakasha has explained that the property that helps in removal of क्लेद (Moisture) along with व्रणरोपण (Healing of wounds) are due to the property विशद (Vishada).


As the above definition goes the substance which is predominant with this property is considered to be possessing the ability to clean the parts or surfaces that has been covered with sticky substances. It is a well known fact that a substance can stick only when there is presence of water or moisture which is told as क्लेद (Kleda) in Ayurveda. The materials that do tend to stick is either water itself or with substances dissolved in it. It will also be possible with the substances that are oily or greasy in nature. In any case it is the substance with the property विशद (Vishada) is instrumental in clearing it. In case of a water or substance that is associated with water, the mechanism for cleaning is done by those substances which are hygroscopic in nature where the moisture is absorbed from the surface. This property is fine with water but not with that of oils or grease. In case of such sticky substances, the materials that bring out the cleaning action by those plant materials which are either acidic or alkaline in nature. These substances lower the surface tension of water, then emulsify the material which may be oil or grease and then contain these in the water suspended such that it will not redeposit itself and result in cleanliness.

The main cause for the above nature of the property VISHADA  is due to the fact that it is supposed to be manifested due to the predominance of four Mahabhutas out of five namely आकाश, वायु, अग्नि and पृथ्वी महाभूत. Even though the removal of moisture is resulted by all these Mahabhuta it is the activity of अग्नि महाभूत that results in the removal of the various sticky substances because there is the process of disintegration that takes place in the substance leading to breakage of bonds and repulsion of substances especially in those substances that are oily or greasy in nature. Other than this the removal of moisture by the method of absorption is done by the involvement of all the four महाभूत also. 


Any part of the body that is said to be predominant with the related महाभूत (Mahabhuta) will be affected leading to their increase or predominance. Thus all the components of the body namely दोष, धातु & मल which form the basic composition of the body are directly affected by the property. The effects of Vishada Guna on these components are as under:


The main action of the property is क्षालन (Kshalana) which stands for the cleansing mechanism. But the definition of Sushruta has also highlighted the healing mechanism for the property too. Hence the property will lead to removal of different materials that are sticky (Water and fat) or their derivatives from the body tissues. But this may also lead to the washing away of the body tissues too. It is also to be seen that these substances will lead to असन्धान (breaks) even though it facilitates the healing process. Thus it leads to weakening of the body tissues leading to flaccidity and loss of the body tissues (धातु क्षय). 


With respect to the Dosha, it is to be observed, that there is a removal of क्लेद (Kleda) or moisture from the body which leads to the loss of body tissues (धातु क्षय) which in turn becomes a cause for the vitiation of the वात दोष (Vata Dosha) and decrease of कफ दोष (Kapha Dosha). Here too, the effect on पित्त दोष (Pitta Dosha) is that it neither gets vitiated nor decrease as it remains unabated by it. 


With respect to the effect on मल (Mala), the property will lead to dryness or शोषण of मल (Mala) as the moisture is removed or gets absorbed.  This will lead to a constipated bowels with low frequency of excretion. 


The effect of the property on मनस् is to be understood that the moisture is lost leading to dryness and loss of moisture along with making the person more alert, attentive and with high spirits till the optimum use of energy. But when the same runs out of energy, the mind will be lethargic and tired due to fall of energy levels.

।। सर्वे भद्राणि पश्यन्तु माकश्चिद्दुःखभाग्भवेत् ।।

पिच्छिल गुण – Picchila Guna


This Guna is taken as the opposite of the Vishada Guna and hence it is generally equated to the property of Stickiness and like the earlier one it is said to attribute the same property to the body. The equating of the property to the nature of stickiness or adhesion is both in terms of physical and chemical parameters. Physically, the property is understood by the ability of the substance to adhere itself to a contact surface. The property is resulted due to the property of adhesion and cohesion in water and with respect to the other substances is through adsorption of moisture. The property is dependent on the factors namely viscosity, moisture, temperature, pressure or compression, composition of the substance and particle size. These factors infact bring out the various chemical activities of the substance inside the body which become the chemical basis of the property. Among all these factors, the moisture is the most important as the presence of water and its interaction with solids is the prime cause of stickiness in many substances. 

The property is attributed with the action of लेपन (Lepana) which means that the property is responsible for the action of adhesiveness or smearing of the substance resulting in a thin film or coating over the surface with which gets in contact. This can be in any region either outside the body or inside the body too. Inside the body the property can result in the sticking of the body parts or produce the bye-products that are predominant with this property. 

In the context of Dravyaguna, this property is to be taken as the ability of the substance or its derivatives to stick to the surface of contact especially within the body. With respect to the same outside the body is restricted to the physical adhesion of substances in the form of pastes, oils, ointments, etc on the body surface and the ability to sustain the same. 

  1. यस्य लेपने शक्तिः स पिच्छिलः । (हेमाद्रि)
  2. पिच्छिलो जीवनो बल्यः सन्धानः श्लेष्मलो गुरुः । (सु.सू. 46/417)
  3. पिच्छिलो गुणः जीवनः प्राणधारणः । सन्धानो भग्नस्य । (डल्हण)
  4. पिच्छिलस्तन्तुलो बल्यः सन्धानः श्लेष्मलो गुरुः । (भा. प्र.)

As per Hemadri the property that is present in the substance and is responsible for the लेपने (Lepana) effect on the body is to be considered as पिच्छिल (Picchila).

As per Sushruta, the property that results in the maintenance of life, provide strength, binds the parts, increase कफ (Kapha) and is always with गुरु (Guru) property is पिच्छिल (Picchila).

For this Dalhana clarifies that the word जीवन (Jeevana) refers to ability to sustain life while सन्धान (Sandhana) refers to the ability to bind the broken parts.

As per Bhavaprakasha, पिच्छिल  (Picchila) is that factor present in the substance which is responsible for increasing the strength of the body, binding of the body along with increase in कफ (Kapha) and is always with गुरु (Guru) property. 


As the above definition goes the substance which is predominant with this property is the one that leads to the coating or smearing the surfaces with which it comes in contact with or लेपन. In other words it forms a layer over the surface thus leading to protection, binding and strengthening the parts or surfaces. But it will also lead to the shrinking of lumen if the layers deposited becomes excess. Generally, sticky nature is dependent on the presence of moisture resulted due to water or fats as these have high viscosity, good solvation and surface tension especially with respect to water. Basically, with respect to water the stickiness is due to the cohesion and adhesion properties that are present in which makes its molecules to bind within itself and to the surface that it is in contact with. In others the cohesive force that is present in the molecules is increased due to the above mentioned factors especially the pressure making it stick together as they come close to each other due to the application of pressure. Thus the property is much manifested with water being the main factor in many of the cases. 

The main cause for the above  property PICCHILA to show the said action is due to the fact that it is supposed to be manifested due to the predominance of जल महाभूत (Jala Mahabhuta). Binding is the primary action of the जल महाभूत and this is the main activity that is performed by this property. Moreover, the action or manifestation of this property is mainly dependent on the presence of क्लेद (Kleda) or moisture which also ascertains the role of the जल महाभूत (Jala Mahabhuta) in the manifestation of this property. Thus, when it comes to understand the component responsible for the manifestation of the property, the influence or predominance of the Mahabhuta in the substance will be very instrumental. The relative predominance of the other Mahabhuta will decrease the effect of the property. 


Any part of the body that is said to be predominant with the related महाभूत (Mahabhuta) will be affected leading to their increase or predominance. Thus all the components of the body namely दोष, धातु & मल which form the basic composition of the body are directly affected by the property. The effects of Picchila Guna on these components are as under:


The property has a great influence in the process of binding the different body parts with each other. The property provides the media with which the different parts and individual components of the part or tissue get bound with each other. On the molecular  level, the binding in tissue level is an important aspect of drug distribution too. Thus, the property produces a coating on different surfaces so as to enhance and maintain the tissues with respect to its shape, size and even functionality. Hence in total it facilitates the increase in the strength and efficiency of the body tissues  (धातु वृद्धि). 


With respect to the Dosha also the same chemistry of the महाभूत (Mahabhuta) is applied, where the Dosha which is composed of the महाभूत (Mahabhuta) is कफ दोष (Kapha Dosha). Hence, the predominance of this property will lead to vitiation of कफ दोष (Kapha Dosha) or its simple increase. As the quality is opposite to वात दोष (Vata Dosha) and पित्त दोष (Pitta Dosha) it will be instrumental in the control of the same. But with respect to the कफ दोष (Kapha Dosha), it prevents its liquefaction hence will not be leading to its विलयन thus preventing in further aggravation to प्रसर (Prasara) stage and the increase of the pathological condition of कफ दोष (Kapha Dosha) will lead to only a increase in quantity. Normally the coating by the कफ (Kapha) is protective in nature but when vitiated it leads to the deposition of the contents with respect to srotas or any part of the body (which it affects) leading to a disease condition.


With respect to the effect on मल (Mala) too there will be increase in bulk of the same. Here it is the property that makes its components to stick with each other thus increasing the bulk (मलवृद्धि). But it will also lead to smoothening of the bulk and the surface of the srotas  leading to proper evacuation. But if the same property increases, the मल (Mala)  becomes sticky resulting in difficulty to evacuate. 


With respect to the effect of the property on मनस् (Manas) or psychology, the substance with this property is more of nutritional and protective in nature which facilitates the normal functioning of the मनस् (Manas). Thus it results in proper perception along with a boost to memory and stability to psychological activities of the individual. 

।। ॐ शान्ति शान्ति शान्तिः ।।



  1. Name
  2. English equivalent term
  3. Physical Equivalent
  4. Chemical Equivalent
  5. Action on Dosha
  6. Action on Dhatu
  7. Action on Mala
  8. Action on Agni (Appetite)
  9. General Action on Body
  10. General Action on Mind
  11. Panchamahabhuta Base
  12. Examples

आग्नेय गुण (VISHADA GUNA)

  1. विशद
  2. Clear or clean
  3. Ability to clean
  4. Hygroscopic nature
  5. Vitiates Vata and Control Kapha
  6. Dhatuhrasa
  7. Decrease excretion 
  8. Increase Appetite 
  9. Increase flaccidity
  10.  Alert and energised mind
  11. आकाश, अग्नि, पृथ्वी & वायु
  12.  अरिष्टक, शिरीष

सौम्य गुण (PICCHILA GUNA)

  1. पिच्छिल
  2. Sticky
  3. Forms layer on surface
  4. Less or non penetrative
  5. Vitiates Kapha but controls Vata and Pitta 
  6. Brimhana or Dhatukara 
  7. Increase bye-product (मल) 
  8. Decrease Appetite 
  9. Increase strength & Bulkiness 
  10. Boost memory and stabilizes functioning.
  11. जल
  12.  गुग्गुलु, शाल्मली


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