।। ॐ श्री धन्वन्तरये नमः ।।


  1. Introduction
  2. पर – Favourable
    1. Definition of Para Guna
    2. Description of पर गुण (Para Guna)
    3. Benefits or Effects of पर गुण (Para Guna)
  3. अपर – Unfavourable
    1. Definition of Apara Guna
    2. Description of अपर गुण (Apara Guna)
    3. Benefits or Effects of अपर गुण (Apara Guna)


Here we will be discussing about the two properties enlisted in the group PARADI gunas. The two are the first two properties that are mentioned in the list. The name ‘PARADI’ is given to the group as a result of the ‘Para’ property being the first one. The two properties are actually opposite to each other and is one of the two sets of opposites that are present in the group where the other being the Samyoga and Vibhaga properties. 

The two properties are not a permanent classification of substances, properties and actions. According to the situation, any of these can become a favourable or an unfavourable one. Thus, the two properties are only with respect to a situation and not a permanent labelling of the substances. 

These two opposites are one of the most commonly used ones in our daily life. They are beneficial not only for the purpose of medicines but also in almost every transactions that we perform. Para and Apara properties represent the qualities that we consider favourable or superior and unfavourable or inferior respectively. As mentioned in the reference from the text Charaka Samhita, the favourable and unfavourable property or any substance is dependent on the देश (Region), काल (Time), वय (Maturity), मान (Quantity), पाक (Development), वीर्य (Potency), रस (Taste), etc. 

।। सर्वे जनाः सुखिनो भवन्तु सर्वे सन्तु निरामय ।।​

पर गुण – Para Guna

Generally, this property is equated as the one that results in Favourable or Superior. This refers to a activity of comparison between two or more substances. Here the condition favourable is based on different factors. These factors may be that which is easily available, high quality, very well matured, etc. Every substance can be favourable based on these factors. It also decides the superiority of the substance over the others that are available too. 

In the context of Dravyaguna, the quality is having a great importance. It is the one that gives ability to decide the best among the available options or medications. Thus, the quality is useful to determine the useful of the substance in the given condition.


The definitions of a concept or the property give us the idea as what the property stands for. These definitions are usually interpreted with respect to the context in which it is being mentioned. The definition of the property PARA is as below:

  1. तच्च परत्वं प्रधानत्वम्  । (च. द.)
  2. परत्वं सन्निकृष्टत्वम उपयोगितायाम्  आसन्नत्वम  । (यो)

The definition of Chakradatta states that the property that makes the factor superior is पर (Para).

As per Yogendranath, any substance or property that is easily available and is present in close proximity is to be considered as पर (Para).


The definition given by the two authors express that the property is the ability of the substance or property that is easily available. It also refers to the ability of being present in the close proximity. Thus, it makes the property or substance as superior or favourable when compared to others. Hence, the quality named as पर (PARA) is being labeled to it. It is to be understood that the quality of favour or superior is only when it is being compared to another object. For the purpose of comparison, the substance of choice should be similar in terms of property, availability, quality or even proximity.  


With respect to the benefits of पर (Para) property, the quality is useful in ascertaining the utility of the substance with respect to the need. It also gives an idea of the available options along with the clarity as to which would be the most suitable one among them. It allows the physician to have a better choice of medicament and treatment options in the process of giving health care solutions to the needy. 

।। सर्वे भद्राणि पश्यन्तु माकश्चिद्दुःखभाग्भवेत् ।।

अपर गुण – Apara Guna

The property like it earlier opposite is equated to that which results in Unfavourable or Inferior. Hence, it refers to an activity of comparing two or more substances. The condition that is necessary to a particular situation is the main criterion. It decides the substance, property or a particular activity is favourable or unfavourable. 

In the context of Dravyaguna, the quality is of a great importance. It is the one that gives a physician the ability to decide as which should be selected or rejected. It also helps to understand the various available options or medications. Thus, the quality is useful for it gives a spectrum of options to the user.


The property अपर (Apara) is the one that is opposite to the property पर (Para). It is the second property enlisted in the group of परादि गुण (Paradi Guna). Being the opposite to the पर (Para) property, this is being equated to Unfavourable or Inferior quality. As a result, any substance which is labelled as अपर (Apara) is to be considered as inferior or unfavourable. This consideration is only with respect to a certain need or requirement. 

  1. अपरत्वम् अप्रधानत्वम् । (च.द)  
  2. तद्विपर्ययः अपरत्वम् । (यो) 

As per the text Chakradatta, the quality अपर (Apara) refers to that which makes any factor unimportant or inferior.

Yogendranath explains अपर (Apara) with reference to पर (para) as the quality which is opposite to it.


As per the above definitions, it is quite evident that, the quality अपर (Apara) represents inferior or unfavourable. Hence, any product, substance, quality or action is said as अपर (Apara) when it is far from the nearest proximity. A substance in consideration may be best by means of its quality. Still it is considered as अपर (Apara) because of unavailability. It may also be due to the missing of one or the other components too. Hence, making the factor difficult for procurement or use. This makes the said substance to be unfavourable or अपर (Apara). 

Even this property like its opposite is only applicable when there is a comparison of two or more factors. The comparison is with respect to all the components of the factors that are useful in a given situation. 


Like its opposite, even this property is having a similar benefit but in its opposite sense. The quality usually helps in negating those which are not favourable for a given condition or a situation. It also applies with respect to medicaments that are to be used in a treatment modality. The choice will always be the best among the available options. With the emphasis on the different components of medicaments the selection is also done on its availability. Thus, the quality determines the second or subsequent choice among the list.

।। ॐ शान्ति शान्ति शान्तिः ।।


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