।। ॐ श्री धन्वन्तरये नमः ।।


  1. Introduction
  2. संयोग – Combination
    1. Definition of Samyoga Guna
    2. Description of संयोग गुण (Samyoga Guna)
    3. Benefits or Effects of संयोग गुण (Samyoga Guna)
  3. विभाग – Separation
    1. Definition of Vibhaga Guna
    2. Description of विभाग गुण (Vibhaga Guna)
    3. Benefits or Effects of विभाग गुण (Vibhaga Guna)
  4. पृथक्त्व – Distinguish
    1. Definition of Prithaktwa Guna
    2. Description of पृथक्त्व गुण (Prithaktwa Guna)
    3. Benefits or Effects of पृथक्त्व गुण (Prithaktwa Guna)


Among the 10 Paradi Gunas, these three are those which are of close proximity to each other. Among this list, the two, namely Samyoga and Vibhaga are those which are opposite to each other. It is one among the two sets of opposites that is present in the group of Paradi Gunas. While the other opposite is the Para and Apara present in the start of the list. Even though the property Prithaktwa is not the opposite of Samyoga, still the property is having a close relationship with Vibhaga. 

।। सर्वे जनाः सुखिनो भवन्तु सर्वे सन्तु निरामय ।।​

संयोग गुण – Samyoga Guna

संयोग (Samyoga) is the term that expresses the ability to combine with another substance or medium. The process of combination will always involve two or more substances which may combine temporarily or permanently giving rise to a new substance altogether. The combination will occur in terms of physical, chemical or both. If the combining components are fundamental origin then the combination is said to be a permanent (नित्य) while if the components are derived ones then the combination is said to temporary (अनित्य). 

Thus, in the present context of Dravyaguna, the quality finds a special importance. As the quality is necessary for the combination of different medicinal substances during the course of treatment.


The definition of a property gives the idea of the utility and scope of the property in the context where it is being explained. Here too, this is being explained in similar lines. 

  1. संयोगः पुनर्द्वयो बहूनां वा द्रव्याणां संहती भावः। (च.सू. 26)

As per the reference from Charaka Samhita, the quality Samyoga is that property which facilitates the combination of two or more substances into a homogenous (संहती भाव) one. 


As per the definition, the quality is the one that facilitates an activity of combining the substances. Any such combination will always lead to a new substance or a formulation. There are many such formulations in the system of Ayurveda. Even other than these, there are many combinations that are present under the category of foods too. On considering the involvement of the material as such, or quality of the substance in the process of combination, it is of three varieties namely – 

  1. द्वन्द्वकर्मज (Dwandwakarmaja)
  2. सर्वकर्मज (Sarvakarmaja)
  3. एकर्मज (Ekakarmaja)

The first variety is a situation where only two substances or components take part in the process of combination and both actively participate in it. This variety is also known as उभयकर्मज (Ubhayakarmaja) by the text Vaisheshika Darshana. 

The second variety is a condition where there are more than two substances or components take part in the process of combination where all actively participate in it. This variety is not present in the classification of Vaisheshika Darshana.  

The third variety is where the process is resulted due to the activity of one substance or component among the two or more that take part in the process. Here the other components are passive in nature. Vaisheshika Darshana explains this variety as अन्यतरकर्मज (Anyatarakarmaja). 

The text Vaisheshika Darshana mentions संयोगज (Samyogaja) as the third variety which is different from those that are present above. It stands for the combination of different parts of the body with one another. 

As per the present understanding the combination is of two major types namely Physical and Chemical. The combinations like Churna are examples for physical combination while the formulations like Asava, vati, etc where there is a process of heating which can be the examples for chemical combinations. 


The use of this property is being seen in different applications. Right from the preparation of physical combinations to different chemical amalgamations and combinations are seen in the science of Ayurveda. Moreover, this property is one among the basic activity for any action to result. Thus, it is seen to have a wide use and with multiple benefits in the science of Ayurveda. 

।। सर्वे भद्राणि पश्यन्तु माकश्चिद्दुःखभाग्भवेत् ।।

विभाग गुण – Vibhaga Guna

The property which is opposite to संयोग (Samyoga) or combination is विभाग (Vibhaga) or Separation. This property is one of the two sets of opposites present in the group परादि गुण (Paradi Guna). Wherever, the property Samyoga is present, there is always a presence of this property. Especially when the property is a resultant of a temporary combination. Hence, like the Samyoga this is also having a similar presence but is always a temporary one. 

In the subject of Dravyaguna, the quality has equal importance as its opposite. Hence like combination this too has a considerable importance in the planning and execution of treatment.


Like the property Samyoga, even this has a definiton that suits its presence in the subject dravyaguna. The one which is more suitable is taken as a definition in the present context.

  1. विभागस्तु विभक्तिः स्याद्वियोगो भागशो ग्रहः । (च.सू. 26)
  2. प्राप्ति पूर्विका अप्राप्तिः विभागः । (यो)

According to the text Charaka Samhita, the property that results in a breakage of a substance into different parts is known as Vibhaga. 

Yogendranatha explains that the one which is separate or before the attainment of a combination is Vibhaga.


The definition of the property as per the two references show that the property is the tendency or ability to separate itself from its group or combination or even its own framework is विभाग (Vibhaga). Infact, the formulations which is a combination of several substances that are useful in many disease conditions is only possible to administer when they are made into a separate pills or other suitable dosage form. This separation may involve the substance as such or even on the basis of its qualities. Hence, like संयोग (Samyoga) even this property is of three varieties namely –

  1. द्वन्द्वकर्मज (Dwandwakarmaja)
  2. सर्वकर्मज (Sarvakarmaja)
  3. एकर्मज (Ekakarmaja)

Like in the earlier context of Samyoga, here too the text Vaisheshika Darshana mentions the varieties as सर्वकर्मज, एककर्मज and विभागज.

Here too, the first variety is a condition where only two components of a compound will take part in the process of separation with the active involvement of both. Here too the variety is उभयकर्मज (Ubhayakarmaja) in Vaisheshika Darshana.

Like the Samyoga, the second variety is a situation when there are more than two components in a combination which actively participate in undergoing the process of separation. This is not present in the classification done by Vaisheshika Darshana.

The last variety mentioned by the texts is the एककर्मज (Ekakarmaja) where one component among those that are present in the combination will be active and result in a separation. This is also mentioned as अन्यतरकर्मज (Anyatarakarmaja) as per the text Vaisheshika Darshana.

The third variety that the book Vaisheshika Darshana mentions is the विभागज (Vibhagaja) which represents a situation where a part of the body separates and doesn’t has very rare or no chances of being attached.

The present way of understanding the property is in terms of physical and chemical separations. The physical separations are done by the process of cutting, breaking, etc while the chemical separations are also possible with different processes like electrolysis, reversible reactions, etc.

The process of getting separated occurs in three steps and is as follows.

1st Step – विभक्ति (Vibhakti)

Initially, the tendency to get separated (the property) present within the substance gets triggered. This makes the substance trying to break away from its main parts like the drying of the petiole before the leaf is shred.

2nd Step – वियोग (Viyoga)

In this step, the substance now rejects the part and stops all communications with it. This results in the alienation of the substance part that is going to be separated or has shown the tendency of being separate.

3rd Step – भागशोग्रह (Bhagashograha)

In final step, the part of the substance that has been showing the signs of separation will loose itself and break away from the main parts of the substance.


Finally the benefits of the property Vibhaga is it helps in the different dosage forms. It helps in the ability of making the formulations easier to be taken on separation from the product duly prepared. The separation is also a property which results in the manifestation of various activities along with Samyoga.  Infact, the two properties go hand in hand such that the execution of Karma (action) happens efficiently. 

।। ॐ शान्ति शान्ति शान्तिः ।।

पृथक्त्व गुण – Prithaktwa Guna

The quality fo the substance by which it gets differentiated such that it remains a separate entity with its own identity is Prithaktwa. The quality that gives the effect of being differentiated or distinguished is known as Prithaktwa. Hence the quality Prithaktwa is to be equated to Distingush or Differentiation. This is a permanent property and will be present in any condition or situation. 

In Dravyaguna, the quality is an important feature that helps in the differentiation and easy identification of the materials that is being used in different processes. The processes may be a treatment module or preparing a formulation. 


Like every property that is being described, here too we only concentrate on those definitions that are useful in explaining the concepts of Ayurveda especially Dravyaguna. 

  1. इदं द्रव्यं पटलक्षणं घटात् पृथक् इत्यादिका बुद्धिर्यतो भवति तत् पृथक्त्वम्     । (च)
  2. पृथक्त्वमसंयोगो वैलक्षण्यमनेकता । (च.सू.26) 

Chakrapani, defines the property as the one that clearly differentiates one object from the other with an example of a पट (cloth) and a घट (pot). the properties of the two are so much different from each other that we can clearly know it by its name itself even without the presence of the object.

As per the definition of Charaka, the property is one that doesn’t even combine with any other substance or with its own members or even with those near by. Thus it is a property that completely alienates the substance from others.


The above definition gives the idea and also the varieties of the property पृथक्त्व(Prithaktwa). The definition also clearly states that the property is that which differentiates a given substance from others even if the other belongs to the same category. The reference of Charaka gives an idea of how a substance becomes a separate entity from others. These three are is also the varieties of the property. These three are

  1. असंयोग (Asamyoga)
  2. वैलक्षण्य (Vailakshanya)
  3. अनेकता (Anekata)
1st Step – असंयोग (Asamyoga)

Here the first variety is the actually the condition where a substance is basically differentiated from its own members which may be far away from its position. The differentiation is based on different characters like position or its region where it is situated. Here it gets alienated from its own league or group. For example Hareetaki present in the trees of Western Ghats and that present in the trees of Himalayas.

2nd Step – वैलक्षण्य (Vailakshanya)

This is the second variety in the list and is also the second step of differentiation. This segregation results in separation of the object from the other dissimilar ones that are present either in the surrounding environment or away from it. It becomes a odd among those present in the region and is in no way having a similarity of characters. For example Differentiation of hareetaki and amalaki

3rd Step – अनेकता (Anekata)

The third variety in the list is the third step of differentiation too. This step is the final one where the individual components of the group get differentiated from other components of the same group present in the same region, area or even the same category. This takes every minute property or character of the substance into account to reach this stage of differentiation. For example the varieties in the fruit Hareetaki. 


The property has its own contribution towards the benefits or scope in the context of Dravyaguna. The property will be useful in identifying the different varieties of the substance with respect to its qualities, action and effects. It is the basis of enumerating the अग्र्य द्रव्य (Agrya dravyas) or the substance of choice in a given condition. 



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