।। ॐ श्री धन्वन्तरये नमः ।।


  1. Introduction
  2. संख्य – Numbers
    1. Definition of Sankhya Guna
    2. Description of संख्य गुण (Sankhya Guna)
    3. Benefits or Effects of संख्य गुण (Sankhya Guna)
  3. परिमाण – Measurements
    1. Definition of Parimana Guna
    2. Description of परिमाण गुण (Parimana Guna)
    3. Benefits or Effects of परिमाण गुण (Parimana Guna)


In the present context we will be discussing two important properties of PARADI guna. These two properties are the most used among the group. Actually, the two properties are enlisted at the 4th and 8th position in the list. But they are mentioned here because they are related to each other. Sankhya or numbers and Parimana or measurements are two properties that are dependent on counts itself. Hence, they are considered to be related to each other. 

The properties that are presented here have a relation between them too. It is the Sankhya that determines the count of measurements also. The numbers are those that determine a quantity in terms of the different measurements depending on the substance being measured. They are also required for calculation, quantity in formulations, etc which play a vital role in the deciding the course of action.

।। सर्वे जनाः सुखिनो भवन्तु सर्वे सन्तु निरामय ।।​

संख्य गुण – Sankhya Guna

The property Sankhya is equated to Numbers generally. But it should be borne in mind, that this is being mentioned in the context of Guna or properties. Hence, it is a property of the substance which makes it countable. Thus the property that is to be considered here is the Countability of the substance. It means that the substance in consideration can be counted in which ever manner possible. This can be in just counts like number of pills, number of fruits, etc. Even the measurements are expressed in terms of these counts or numbers thus being an important aspect for all the routine activities. 

In the context of Dravyaguna, the quality is having a great importance. It is this property that determines the accountability of the substance as what is the dose, how much of the substance, etc for a given purpose. 


The definitions of a concept or the property give us the idea as what the property stands for. These definitions are usually interpreted with respect to the context in which it is being mentioned. The definition of the property SANKHYA is as below:

  1. संख्या स्याद् गणितम्   । (च)
  2. गणितं गणनाव्यवहार हेतुरेकद्वित्रयादि संखया । (यो)

The definition as per Chakrapani says that the property Sankhya is the ability to do गणित (Counting). 

In the same context, Yogendranath further explains that the routine counting activity involving numbers namely one, two, three, etc is to the considered as संख्य (Sankhya).


As per the above two definitions considered for the property संख्य (Sankhya) is the ability to count. Hence any substance which is having a mass or shape and is accountable is known to possess this ability. Thus, the Guna is seen to be present in the substance. It is impossible to count the substances that are in very small in size. Hence, different methods like calculating the moles, atomic number, etc. are being used for small objects to general counting of large objects. Generally, a countable substance is that which require a particular article or any other way as identifier else it becomes uncountable. 


Countability of a substance has wider applications than just counting. It helps in the fixation of doses for the treatment. It also helps in gaining a reproducible ratios when preparing a formulation or planning a treatment. Moreover, it is the one that gives a definite dimension for the various measures that are used in different routine activities and transactions. 

।। सर्वे भद्राणि पश्यन्तु माकश्चिद्दुःखभाग्भवेत् ।।

परिमाण गुण – Parimana Guna

The property Parimana is expressed as the property of Measurements. It refers to the ability of a given substance to be measured in a suitable method. As the states of the substances differ, so are their measurements. This property hence denotes the ability and also the suitability of the substance to be measured by a particular method. 

In the context of Dravyaguna, the quality is of a great importance. It is the one that gives a physician the ability to decide the dose of medicine during the course of treatment. It also useful in the measurement of the ingredients while preparing a formulation too. 


The property परिमाण (Parimana) is the one that is equated to the quality of being measured which we express as Measurements. The definition of the same is as expressed below.

  1. परिमाणं पुनर्मानम् । (च.सू. 26)  
  2. पिरिमतिव्यवहारकारणं परिमाणं मानं प्रस्थाढकादि। (यो) 
  3. परिमाणं भवेन्मानव्यवहारकारणम् । (कारिकावली) 

The text Charaka defines this property as the ability of being measured.

While Yogendranath explains परिमाण (Parimana) as the ability of being measured in different methodologies.

Even the text Karikavali mentions as the ability of the substance to be measured and used in our routine activities as परिमाण (Parimana)।


According to the definitions above, it is evident that the ability of the substance to be measured is the quality परिमाण (Parimana). This quality is basically of two varieties namely – 

  1. दीर्घ्यमान – Dimensional measurements
  2. गुरुत्वमान – Measurement of weights

The first variety is based on the size or dimension of the material that is being measured. It includes the measurements like Anguli, Hasta, etc. This is also again of three varieties namely संख्यजन्य (Sankhyajanya), परिमाणजन्य (Parimanajanya) and प्रचयजन्य (Prachayajanya). These varieties deal with substances of micro, macro and mass. Karikavali text mentions this category of measurement to be 4 types namely अणु (Anu – Micro), दीर्घ (Deergha – Macro), महत् (Mahat – Large) and हृस्व (Hrisva – Small).

The second variety represents that we use in our daily or routine activities. Depending on the criteria of measurement, it is of three types namely पौत्व (Pautva – Weights), द्रवय (Dravaya – Volume) and पाय्य (Payya – Length) as per the text Amarakosha. 


The quality of being measured is beneficial to decide the ratio of the substance in a formulation. It also helps in the dose fixation with respect to a treatment. Moreover, it also gives a measure of qualitative and quantitative details of the given substance. It helps to take a decision with respect to a given situation or disease or condition. It also gives the relationship to various fields with calculations. Moreover it also gives a definite dimension or direction of thoughts along with practical viability. 

।। ॐ शान्ति शान्ति शान्तिः ।।


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