TABLE OF CONTENT
- युक्ति – Planning/Intelligence
- Definition of Yukti Guna
- Description of युक्ति गुण (Yukti Guna)
- Benefits or Effects of युक्ति गुण (Yukti Guna)
- संस्कार – Processing
- Definition of Samskara Guna
- Description of संस्कार गुण (Samskara Guna)
- Benefits or Effects of संस्कार गुण (Samskara Guna)
- अभ्यास – Habit
- Definition of Abhyasa Guna
- Description of अभ्यास गुण (Abhyasa Guna)
- Benefits or Effects of अभ्यास गुण (Abhyasa Guna)
Among the 10 Paradi properties, the three namely Yukti, Samskara and Abhyasa are of similar nature. Their orientation towards the involvement of mental faculty in manifestation is the basis for considering under a similar category. Among the three, Yukti represents planning or intelligence, Samskara refers to various processes while Abhyasa refers to habits. Now let us understand these from the Dravyaguna point of view.
The word युक्ति (Yukti) is denotes “Intelligence” in the Sanskrit Language. It also has the same meaning in all most all the languages of India. Thus, it is evident that there is intelligence factor that plays an important role in the present quality. Other than intelligence, the quality is also representing the methodology of planning. Hence, it is a quality that is being considered in the context of Paradi Guna. Thus, it has also made its way into the texts of Dravyaguna. It is due to the fact that planning of any transaction or action or treatment is an important activity on its own to ensure successes.
Thus, in the present context of Dravyaguna, the quality finds a special importance. This is because planning is an important aspect to ensure the optimum use of the plant in different conditions.
DEFINITION OF YUKTI GUNA
The definitions of a concept or the property give us the idea as what the property stands for. These definitions are usually interpreted with respect to the context in which it is being mentioned. The definition of the property YUKTI is as below:
- युक्तिश्च योजना या तु युज्यते । (च.सू. 26)
- योजना दोषाद्यापेक्षया भेषजस्य समीचीनकल्पना । (च)
The definition of “YUKTI” by Charaka in the context of substances and its description says that it is the property that helps in योजन (proper planning and execution)।
To the word “YOJANA”, Chakrapani clarifies that it is the one which helps in a proper combination of different medicaments that are helpful in the treatment. This combination is based on the predominance of the Doshas and other factors.
DESCRIPTION OF YUKTI GUNA
The definition of the quality clearly makes us understand what the factor of intelligence is representing in Dravyaguna. It clearly states that the quality completely deals with the planning and its proper execution. Planning is usually a derivative of intelligence, knowledge and experience. Thus, for a successful treatment a proper planning is always essential. The quality is useful in undertaking different analysis with regards to disease, patient, medicament and its method of administration. In Dravyaguna, the quality is still more focusing on the combination, proportions and dose of its administration. It also emphasise on the adjuvants along with time and duration of the medicament to be given. All this is only possible with proper analysis and interpretation based on the Dosha, Dhatu and other components of the body.
BENEFITS OR EFFECTS OF YUKTI GUNA
The quality Yukti is basically useful for the analysis of the given condition such that a proper planning of treatment is possible. Hence, this acts as an important tool in ascertaining the different medicament, its combinations, dose, etc. It also helps in having a better approach based on the previous experiences and the knowledge that is obtained from it.
The property is equated to the ability of the substance to being processed through different processes. The processes may be of various methods like grinding, triturating, heating or even just washing. These processes are for specific purposes preferably to enhance the productivity of the substance. This is mainly done with respect to a specific set of benefits expected from the substance.
DEFINITION OF SAMSKARA GUNA
With the above contention, the quality is being defined as per the available references. These references give an idea of what the quality is and how it is to be interpreted with reference to Dravyaguna.
- संस्कारो हि गुणान्तराधानमुच्यते । (च.सू. 26)
- ते च गुणास्तोयाग्निसन्निकर्ष शौचमन्थनदेशकालवशेन भाजनादिभिः कालप्रकर्ष भाजनादिभिश्चाधीयन्ते । (च)
As per the text Charaka Samhita, संस्कार (Samskara) is that property which will result in the considerable change of the other properties that is present in the substance.
To the said definition, Chakrapani explains that the word “गुणा” refers to the changes of the property. This change is the result of the processes in which the substance is being exposed.
DESCRIPTION OF SAMSKARA GUNA
This being a property, it refers to the ability of the substance to undergo a considerable change in its materialistic properties. The ability to change is due to the effect of different processes like washing, grinding, heating, churning and even storing. These processes exert sufficient influence on the physical and chemical properties of the substance. This influence will result in the changes of its properties and also the configuration too. But for a change to happen, it is very necessary that it possesses the tendency for the same. This tendency is known as SAMSKARA GUNA.
As per the text Karikavali, this property is generally of three categories namely –
1. वेग (Vega) or Impulse – The ability of the substance to move at a particular pace which gets altered by the influence of different processes is Vega. This is what we consider as the Pharmacokinetics with respect to the subject द्रव्यगुण (Dravyaguna).
2. स्थितिस्थापक (Sthitisthapaka) or Elasticity – The ability of the substance to return to its original form even after being processed is Sthitisthapaka. This is property that makes a substance and its properties more or less stable along with being flexible.
3. भावन (Bhavana) or Infusion or Impression – The ability to imbibe the various qualities of other substances with which is is being processed is Bhavana. This ability is helpful in fortifying the substances with the properties of other by the help of processes like grinding, boiling, heating, etc. This process is also known as Bhavana too.
BENEFITS OF SAMSKARA GUNA
The property is of maximum benefit among the परादि गुण (Paradi Guna). There are many processes that are being used to influence the precision of the action with regards to the selected substance. But it is this quality of the substance that decides as what process would be suitable for the enhancement of the properties. When the properties get enhanced it will also give a better effects such that the main objective of treatment is fulfilled in shortest possible time.
Generally, this property is equated as the one that results in Habituation. It refers to the ability to have a routine activity as a habituated one. It also involves repeated performance of newer activities such that it gets into the routine fold. Hence, all the activities or methodologies that makes a condition, situation or an activity a routine habit is the process of Habituation. But Abhyasa as a property refers to the tendency to get habituated.
In the context of Dravyaguna, the quality is referring to the ability of the substance especially plants to adapt itself in a newer environment. It gives us the idea as how a particular plant can be cultivated, grown and used as a medicament for achieving better benefits.
DEFINITION OF ABHYASA GUNA
The property अभ्यास (Abhyasa) is a the property that is equated to Habituation. It is the property which facilitates the process of habituation in a substance. According to the individual or substance the time required for habituation may vary. This variation is dependent on the character or property of the substance. This property is what we consider as अभ्यास (Abhyasa) with respect to the subject Dravyaguna.
- भावाभ्यसनमभ्यासः शीलनं सततक्रिया । (च.सू. 26)
- भावानामभ्यसनं पुनःपुनरनुष्ठनं सात्तवेन करणमभ्यासः । (यो)
As per the text Charaka Samhita, the property is defined as the quality that results in a habit when there is repetition of the activity for several times.
Even Yogendranath also provides a similar explanation for the reference mentioned in Charaka Samhita. He further adds that it is the process of performing an activity repeatedly till it gets firmly embedded in the substance.
DESCRIPTION OF ABHYASA GUNA
As per the above definition, the property is one that results in habituation through a repetitive activity. This repetition of actions is not only with respect to a living organisms but to the non living ones as well. When the substance is subjected to different processes in a repetitive manner then it gets the property of the media with which it is being processed. This repetitive exposure makes it vulnerable for the change. Hence, the substance undergoes a considerable change in its composition, structure and chemical framework making it more responsive in nature. Here, the process of habituation is the important one. But it is still more important that the substance has the tendency to undergo the change upon exposure to the process. This tendency is actually the property of अभ्यास (Abhyasa) in the context of द्रव्यगुण (Dravyaguna).
BENEFITS OF ABHYASA GUNA
The use of this property is that it determines the ability of the substance to adjust itself with new conditions and situations. With respect to the substance it will determine as to which media is necessary to obtain the optimum benefit of the substance in a given condition. It also helps to understand the utility of the previous properties mentioned in the group especially Samskara in the substance. Lastly, it also determines as how many processes should be done to habituate the medicament with the impressions of the media along with its benefits.