Bala is a plant that is known for providing the much needed strength and energy for the individual. Hence it posses the name as it is the term given for strength in Sanskrit. The plant is commonly used for the treatment of different neurological diseases. The plant is known botanically by the name Sida cordifolia Linn and belong to the family Malvaceae. The term Sida refers to a greek name for waterlily used in old greek language while Cordifolia refers to the heart-shaped leaves. Similarly, the names veronicaefolia and rhombifolia refers to ‘the plant that is very nice or beautiful leaves’ and ‘rhombus shaped leaves’ respectively. Lastly the word Abutilon is a latinzed Arabic word ‘Abu talha’ which means very attractive and the word indicum refers to the one ‘originated in India’. The four plants together form the Balachatushtaya mentioned in Bhavaprakasha Nighantu. Incidently all belong to the same family. 

PLANT DETAILS

BOTANICAL NAME

Sida cordifolia Linn

Sida veronicaefolia Lam

Sida rhombifolia Linn

Abutilon indicum (Link.) Sweet

FAMILY

Malvaceae

NOMENCLATURE

VERNACULAR NAMES
  • Kannada – Kallam Kadhle
  • Malayalam – Katturam
  • Tamil – Nilathuththi
  • Telugu – Chirubenda
  • Hindi – Kharainti
  • English – Country mallow
SANSKRIT SYNONYMS
  • बला (Bala), बलाढ्या (Baladya), विनया (Vinaya) – The plant promotes strength.
  • वाट्या (Vatya) – Having strong fibres.
  • वाट्यालिका (Vatyalika),  – Grows wildly in the fields.
  • ओदनाह्वय (Odanahvaya), भद्रौदनी (Bhadraudani) – The seeds appear like cereals
  • खरयष्टिका (Kharayashtika) – Has rough and hairy stem
  • पीतपुष्प (Peetapushpa) – Yellow flowered plant
  • शीतपाकी (Sheetapaki)– The fruiting is in winter.
PLANT IMAGE
Bala
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PLANT IMAGE
Nagabala
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PLANT IMAGE
Mahabala
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PLANT IMAGE
Atibala
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SAMHITA CLASSIFICATION

Charaka Samhita

  • बल – बल्य (Balya), बृंहणीय (Brimhaneeya), प्रजास्थापन (Prajasthapana)
  • अतिबल – बल्य (Balya), बृंहण (Brimhana), मधुरकस्कनसन्ध (Madhuraskanda)

Sushruta Samhita

  • बल – वातसंशमन (Vatasamshamana)
  • अतिबल –वातसंशमन (Vatasamshamana), मधुरस्कन्ध (Madhuraskanda)
NIGHANTU CLASSIFICATION
  • Dhanvantari Nighantu – Guduchyadi Varga
  • Bhavaprakasha Nighantu – Guduchyadi Varga
  • Raja Nighantu – Shatahvadi Varga
  • Kaiyadeva Nighantu – Aushadhi Varga
BRIEF MORPHOLOGY

BALA – Sida cordifolia Linn 

A branched erect perennial shrub with soft stellate hairs all over. Leaves are 2.5-5cm long, simple, cordate, with petioles 1.2-3.8cm long, serrate. The inflorescence is solitary, axillary with small yellow or white flowers. The fruits are small capsules and is the size of a green gram, the fruits are aggregated into a Schizocarp, 6-8mm, densely covered with woody hairs, greyish black, smooth seeds.

NAGABALA – Sida veronicaefolia Lamk – 

A hairy undershrub with woody branches that are hairy. Leaves are cordate, ovate, acuminate, that vary from 6 to 14 cms length with serrate margin. The inflorescence is solitary or cyme, axillary with pale yellow flowers usually in pairs. The fruit is are small capsules that are aggregated into Schizocarps with brown small seeds.

MAHABALA – Sida rhombifolia Linn – 

A woody perennial shrub covered with soft hairs. The leaves are simple, rhomboid or elliptic with hairs on the lower surface. The inflorescence is solitary, axillary with pale small yellow flowers. The fruit is a dehiscent capsule with dark brown reniform flattened seeds.

ATIBALA – Abutilon indicum (Link.) Sweet 

The plant is a hairy, medium sized perennial herb, covered with minute hairs. The leaves are simple, alternate, cordate shaped with acute tip. The inflorescence is solitary, axillary with yellow flowers. The fruit is a capsule aggregated into a schizocarp with blackish brown seeds. 

PHARMACOGNOSY OF OFFICIAL PART
MACROSCOPY

YET TO BE COMPILED

MICROSCOPY

YET TO BE COMPILED

PART USED AND POSOLOGY
PART USED
मूल (Roots), बीज (Seeds) and पत्र (Leaves)
DOSE

स्वरस (Juice) – 20-40ml and चूर्ण (Powder) – 1-3g

PHYTOCHEMISTRY

Sida cordifolia Linn –

The roots contain Sidasterone A &B, carboxylated tryptamines, asparagine, β-phenethylamine, ephedrine, choline, betaine, rutin, phytosterol, resin acids, β-sitosterol, acylsteryglycoside, vasicinone, vascicine, etc. The seed contain proteins, steroids, mucin, ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, fatty oil, potassium nitrate, linoleic acid, malvalic acid, sterculic acid, etc. The aerial parts contain palmitic, stearic, hexacosanoic acid, β-sitosterol. 

Sida veronicaefolia Lamk – 

The plant contains psuedotannins, flavonoids, phenolic acid, choline and oxalic acid. It also contains beta-phenethylamines, quinazoline, carboxylated tryptamine, linoleic acid, malvalic acid, sterculic acid and gossypol.

Sida rhombifolia Linn – 

The plant contains alkaloids like Ephedrine, Vascicine, Crytoepinone, Hypophorine methyl ester, etc. It also contains fatty acids like Stearic acid, Linoleic acid, Palmitic acid, Malvalica acid, etc. Other like flavanoids, Phytosterols, phenolics, Phaeophytins, etc.

Abutilon indicum (Link.) Sweet –

The plant contains Fumaric acid, Galacturonic acid, alcohols, palmitic acid, Pinelic acid, alkaloids, Aromatic ketones, Coumarins, Flavanoids, Proteins, Phenols, β-sitosterol, Stigmasterols, etc.

रसपञ्चक कर्म PROPERTIES AND USES AS PER AYURVEDA
गुण (Properties)
  • रस (Rasa) – मधुर (Madhura)
  • गुण (Guna) – गुरु (Guru), स्निग्ध (Snigdha), पिच्छिल (Picchila)
  • वीर्य (Veerya) – शीत (Sheeta)
  • विपाक (Vipaka) – मधुर (Madhura)
  • प्रभाव – None
कर्म & प्रयोग (Action & Indications)
  • दोषकर्म (Doshakarma) – वातपित्तशामक (Vatapittashamaka)
  • धातुकर्म & मलकर्म (Dhatukarma and Malakarma)  – Main actions – ग्राहि, धातुवर्धन, बलवर्धन, आयुवर्धन, स्तम्भन & लेखन (Grahi, Dhatuvardhana, Balavardhana, Ayuvardhana, Sthambhana & Lekhana) 
  • Other Actions – कान्तिवर्धक,  नाडीबल्य, हृद्य, शुक्रल, मूत्रल, क्रिमिघ्न, रसायन (Kantivardhaka, Nadibalya, Hridya, Shukrala, Mutrala, Krimighna, Rasayana)
  • प्रयोग (Prayoga)  – Mainly वातरक्त, रक्तपित्त, विबन्ध, क्षतक्षय & वृष्य (Vatarakta, Raktapitta, Vibandha, Kshatakshaya & Vrishya), also useful in  ग्रहणी, पक्षाघात, आध्मान, विबन्ध, उरःक्षत, प्रदर, प्रमेह, गर्भाशय दौर्बल्य, ज्वर, दौर्बल्य, कास, स्वरभेद, etc (Grahani, Pakshaghata, Vibandha, Urahkshata, Pradara, Prameha, Garbhashaya daurbalya, Jwara, Daurbalya, Kasa, Swarabheda, etc).
AYURVEDIC FORMULATIONS
CLASSICAL
  1. बलादि क्वाथ
  2. क्षीरबलादि तैल
  3. बलाद्यरिष्ट
  4. क्षीरबल तैल 101 
  5. बलगुडूच्यादि क्वाथ
  6. चन्दनबल लाक्षादि तैल
PROPRIETARY
  1. Action capsule (Astanga Ayurveda)
  2. Albisciss capsule (Albia biocare)
  3.  
AGRONOMY
ENVIRONMENT

YET TO BE COMPILED

CULTIVATION

YET TO BE COMPILED

HARVESTING

YET TO BE COMPILED

STORAGE

YET TO BE COMPILED

VARIETIES AND SUBSTITUTES OR ADULTERANTS
VARIETIES

NONE MENTIONED

ADULTERANTS

NONE MENTIONED

SUBSTITUTES

YET TO BE COMPILED

TOXICITY
TOXIC SYMPTOMS
  • YET TO BE COMPILED
ANTIDOTE
  • YET TO BE COMPILED
शोधन or PURIFICATION METHOD
  • YET TO BE COMPILED
THERAPEUTIC USES

EXTERNAL USES –

The root juice is applied over wounds to facilitate healing. A poultice prepared by using the leaves will facilitate suppuration of boils. The paste of the root made by adding palmyra palm juice is applied to treat elephantiasis. The roots are pounded and boiled in oil which is applied in nervous disorders, paralysis, debility, etc. 

INTERNAL USES – 

The decoction of roots are given internally with ginger to treat fever especially associated with chills and high temperature. The powder of root-bark is given with milk and sugar to treat leucorrhoea and even frequent micturition. The juice obtained from root-bark is given internally to treat Spermatorrhoea. The root-bark is processed with sesame oil and is given internally with milk to treat conditions like facial paralysis, sciatica and other neurogenic disorders. 

CONTROVERSY (IF PRESENT)

YET TO BE COMPILED

LIST OF RESEARCH STUDIES
  1. Navaneet Khurana, Neha Sharma, et. al. “PHYTO-PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF SIDA CORDIFOLIA: A REVIEW OF FOLKLORE USE AND PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research”, Vol. 9, supplement. 2, 2016, pp. 52-58.
  2. Pandey Manisha, Verma Rohit K, Dharamveer, Koshy MK ,Saraf Shubhini A. Antioxidant Activity of Sida veronicaefolia. Research J. Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 2010; 2(1): 79-81.
  3. Pandey, M., K. Sonker, J. Kanoujia, M. K. Koshy, and S. A. Saraf. “SIDA VERONICAEFOLIA AS A SOURCE OF NATURAL ANTIOXIDANT”. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research, Vol. 1, no. 3, Oct. 2009, pp. 180-2, http://www.ijpsdr.com/index.php/ijpsdr/article/view/57.
  4. Lutterodt GD. Abortifacient properties of an extract from Sida veronicaefolia. J Ethnopharmacol. 1988 May-Jun;23(1):27-37. doi: 10.1016/0378-8741(88)90112-2. PMID: 3419202.
  5. Abat JK, Kumar S, Mohanty A. Ethnomedicinal, Phytochemical and Ethnopharmacological Aspects of Four Medicinal Plants of Malvaceae Used in Indian Traditional Medicines: A Review. Medicines. 2017; 4(4):75. https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines4040075

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