Vidanga is the plant that has been highlighted to have a notable Krimighna or Anthelmintic action as per Ayurveda. The species that is being accepted as Vidanga officially is Embelia ribes Burm f but a fellow species belonging to the same genus namely Embelia robusta C.B. Clarke or Embelia tsjerium-cottam A Dc has also been used profusely as Vidanga itself. Even though the seeds look very similar to each other, the plants have a different morphology. The Embelia ribes Burm f occurs more in the North-eastern part of India while the other species occurs more in the hilly region of the southern India. The plant belongs to the family Myrsinaceae. The word Embelia is derived fom the the Sinhali word embe whic means sour while the word ribes is the derivative for the Arabic name rhubarb

PLANT DETAILS

BOTANICAL NAME

Embelia ribes Burm f.

Embelia robusta C.B. Clarke or Embelia tsjerium-cottam A Dc

FAMILY

Myrsinaceae

NOMENCLATURE

VERNACULAR NAMES
  • Kannada – Vayuvidanga
  • Malayalam – Vijhala
  • Tamil – Vayuvilang
  • Telugu – Vilang
  • Hindi – Vayubidang
  • English – Embelia or False black pepper
SANSKRIT SYNONYMS
  • चित्रतण्डुल (Chitratandula)  – Fruit possess white spots
  • क्रिमिघ्न (Krimighna), क्रिमिहा (Krimiha) – Acts against Krimi or micro-organisms
  • जन्तुघ्न (Jantughna), जन्तुहन्त्रि (Jantuhantri) – Acts effectively against worms
  • वातघ्नि (Vataghni) – Alleviates Vata Dosha
  • नादेयी (Nadeyi) – seen on banks of rivers
  • तर्कारी (Tarkari) – The leaves are edible and is used in making curry.
PLANT IMAGE
Vidanga
Click to enlarge the image
PLANT IMAGE
Vidanga2
Click to enlarge the image
SAMHITA CLASSIFICATION
  • Charaka Samhita – क्रिमिघ्न (Krimighna), कुष्ठघ्न (Kushtaghna), तृप्तिघ्न (Triptighna) & शिरोविरेचन (Shirovirechana).
  • Sushruta Samhita – सुरसादि (Surasadi), & पिप्पल्यादि (Pippalyadi)
NIGHANTU CLASSIFICATION
  • Dhanvantari Nighantu – Shatapushpadi Varga
  • Bhavaprakasha Nighantu – Haritakyadi Varga
  • Raja Nighantu – Pippalyadi Varga
  • Kaiyadeva Nighantu – Aushadhi Varga
BRIEF MORPHOLOGY

VIDANGA – Embelia ribes Burm f. –

It is a large scandent shrub with long, slender, flexible branch, terate with long internodes. They are also considered as climbers. The bark is often studded with lenticels Leaves are simple, acute at both ends, elliptical, elliptic-lanceolate, shining above, pale and somewhat silvery beneath, subopposite or alternate. The inflorescence is terminal or upper axillary panicle racemes with white or greenish yellow, minute flowers. Fruits are berries, smooth, succulent, wrinkled when dry, black in colour with one seed.

VIDANGA – Embelia tsjerium-cottam A Dc –

Deciduous shrubs with stem being densely pubescent. Leaves elleptic-obovate, margin serrulate, simple, glabrous, venation prominent below, caudate-acuminate at the apex. Inflorescence is axillary racemes appear along with the leaves with yellow coloured, minute flowers. Fruits subglobose, red and tipped by the style. 

PHARMACOGNOSY OF OFFICIAL PART
MACROSCOPY

YET TO BE COMPILED

MICROSCOPY

YET TO BE COMPILED

PART USED AND POSOLOGY
PART USED
फल (Fruits)
DOSE

चूर्ण (powder) – 5-10g

PHYTOCHEMISTRY

Embelia ribes Burm f. –

The fruit contains embelin, quercitol, fats, christembine an alkaloid, a resionoid, tannins, sitosterol, daucosterol, embolic acid, embelinol, vilangin and some volatile oils.

Embelia tsjerium-cottam A Dc –

The fruit contains alkaloids, glycosides, tannins, phenolics, flavanoids and saponins.

रसपञ्चक कर्म PROPERTIES AND USES AS PER AYURVEDA
गुण (Properties)
  • रस (Rasa) – कटु (Katu), कषाय (Kashaya)
  • गुण (Guna) – रूक्ष (Ruksha), लघु (Laghu), तीक्ष्ण (Teekshna)
  • वीर्य (Veerya) – उष्ण (Ushna)
  • विपाक (Vipaka) – कटु (Katu)
  • प्रभाव – None
कर्म & प्रयोग (Action & Indications)
  • दोषकर्म (Doshakarma) – कफवातशामक (Kaphavatashamaka)
  • धातुकर्म & मलकर्म (Dhatukarma and Malakarma)  – Main actions – दीपन, शूलहर, कृमिघ्न, रुच्य, मेदहर, विषहर (Deepana, Shulahara, Krimighna, Ruchya, Medahara, Vishahara) 
  • Other Actions – रक्तशोधक, शोथहर, मूत्रजनन, गर्भनिरोधक, वर्ण्य, कुष्ठघ्न, रसायन (Raktashodhaka, Shothahara, Garbhanirodaka, Varnya, Kushtaghna, Rasayana)
  • प्रयोग (Prayoga)  – Mainly कृमि, उदर, शूल, विबन्ध, आध्मान, विष (Krimi, Udara, Shula, Vibandha, Adhmana, Visha), also useful in  अग्निमान्द्य, अजीर्ण, अर्श, मस्तिष्कदौर्बल्य, जीर्णप्रतिश्याय, चर्मरोग, शिरोरोग, कामल (Agnimandya, Ajeerna, Arsha, Mastishkadaurbalya, Jeernapratishyaya, Charmaroga, Shiroroga, Kamala)
AYURVEDIC FORMULATIONS
CLASSICAL
  1. विडङ्गारिष्ट
  2. विडङ्गलौह
  3. विडङ्गादिलेप
  4. विडङ्गादि चूर्ण
  5. क्रिमिकटार रस
PROPRIETARY
AGRONOMY
ENVIRONMENT

The plant requires a moist and a shady place and grows conveniently upto an altitude of 1500mts. The environment that is required should be tropical or sub-tropical in nature along with medium black soil with good draining facility. The optimum temperature is 18 to 35 deg C with 700 to 1500mm rainfall.

CULTIVATION

The plant is propagated through seeds and can be done by direct seeding method. The sowing of the seeds are to be done during June and July while the after doing a fine tilth. The sowing is done with a gap of 3 feet or 1 mt. Thus an average of 4500 seeds can be sown in 1 acre. 

HARVESTING

The crop usually matures in 5 to 6 months of time and starts fruiting at around October and November where the fruits are plucked. There is no potential diseases to this plant and is dried before storage. The average yield of the fruit is 76 to 80 kgs per acre. 

STORAGE

The fruit is dried in sunshade and then stored in air tight containers.

VARIETIES AND SUBSTITUTES OR ADULTERANTS
VARIETIES

There is no variety mentioned for the plant 

ADULTERANTS

NO KNOWN ADULTERANTS

SUBSTITUTES

The plant Embelia ribes Burm f. is the officially accepted species for Vidanga as per Ayurvedic Pharmacoepia of India. But the other species namely Embelia tsjerium-cottam A Dc which has Embelia robusta Roxb and Embelia bassal A Dc as synonyms.

TOXICITY
TOXIC SYMPTOMS
  • The plant is regarded as non-toxic
ANTIDOTE
  • Not necessary
शोधन or PURIFICATION METHOD
  • NOT NECESSARY
THERAPEUTIC USES
  1. The decoction of the fruits are given internally to treat fever, diseases of chest and skin diseases.
  2. An infusion of the roots are given internally to treat cough and diarrhoea. 
  3. The powder of the fruit is given internally along with milk followed by a purgation to treat tapeworm infestation. 
  4. The fruits are given with lukewarm water to treat dyspepsia, flatulence, constipation and piles. 
CONTROVERSY (IF PRESENT)

YET TO BE COMPILED

LIST OF RESEARCH STUDIES
  1. Patil, Usha, and From the proceedings of Insight Ayurveda 2013, Coimbatore. 24th and 25th May 2013. “OA02.14. Krimigna action of vidanga against clinical isolates of multidrug resistant bacteria, importance of correct identification.” Ancient Science of Life vol. 32,Suppl 2 (2013): S20.
  2. Himanshu Kanzariya et al. Pharmacognostical and pharmaceutical evaluation of Vidanga vati. Int. J. Res. Ayurveda Pharm. 2017; 8(Suppl 3): 112-114 http://dx.doi.org/10.7897/ 2277-4343.083180.
  3. Lal, Bharat, and Neeraj Mishra. “Importance of Embelia ribes: An update.” International journal of pharmaceutical sciences and research 4.10 (2013): 3823.

0 Comments

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.