Vidari is the plant that is mentioned in Ayurvedic texts to have actions like Vijaya is a plant that most of us have never heard off till date even though it is very popularly used in many formulations of Ayurveda. The plant is known by the name Bhumikushmanda in Sanskrit as it is having a large underground tuber. The tuber are of high nutritional value and is said to be a good aphrodisiac in Ayurveda. The plant is mostly seen wild in the dry parts of India like Central India and Gujarat. It is also seen in the foot hills of Himalayas on the western side upto an altitude of 1300mts. The botanical name of this plant is Pueraria Tuberosa Dc. which is very popular known as Indian Kudzu. The plant belongs to the family Papilionaceae. The word ‘Pueraria‘ is named in honour of the scientist Mr M.M.N. Puerari while the word ‘tuberaosa‘ means it has tuberous roots.

PLANT DETAILS

BOTANICAL NAME

Pueraria tuberosa Dc 

FAMILY

Papilionaceae or Leguminosae

NOMENCLATURE

VERNACULAR NAMES
  • Kannada – Gummadigida
  • Malayalam – Mudakku
  • Tamil – Karikummati
  • Telugu – Darigummadi
  • Hindi – Vidarikand
  • English – Indian Kudzu
SANSKRIT SYNONYMS
  • विदारि (Vidari)  – The one that causes a break or crack
  • विदारिकन्द  (Vidarikanda) – a root tuber that causes a break or crack
  • भूमिकूष्माण्ड (Bhumikushmanda) – A large sized tuber like the ash-gourd
  • क्षीेरकन्द (Ksheerakanda) – A tuber with a milky exudate
  • कृष्णवल्लिका (Krishnavallika) – The dark coloured weak stemmed plant
  • कन्दपलाश (Kandapalasha) – Plant resembling Palasha (Butea monosperma (Lam) Taub) but with a tuber.
  • इक्षुगन्ध (Ikshugandha) – A plant or tuber with the smell of sugarcane.
  • क्षीरशुक्ल (Ksheerashukla), सिता (Sitaa) – The tubers are milky white in colour.
  • क्षीरवल्ली (Ksheeravalli), पयस्विनी (Payasvini) – The weak stemmed plant with milky latex.
  • स्वादुकन्द (Swadukanda) – Tuber with sweet taste.
PLANT IMAGE
Vidari
Click the image to enlarge
SAMHITA CLASSIFICATION
  • Charaka Samhita – बल्य (Balya), बृंहणीय (Brimhaneeya), वर्ण्य (Varnya), कण्ठ्य (Kanthya), स्नेहोपग (Snehopaga) & मधुरस्कन्द (Madhuraskanda)
  • Sushruta Samhita – विदारिगन्धादि (Vidarigandhadi), वल्लीपञ्चमूल (Vallipanchamula) & पित्तसंशमन (Pittasamshamana)
NIGHANTU CLASSIFICATION
  • Dhanvantari Nighantu – Guduchyadi Varga
  • Bhavaprakasha Nighantu – Guduchyadi Varga
  • Raja Nighantu – Mulakadi Varga
  • Kaiyadeva Nighantu – Aushadhi Varga
BRIEF MORPHOLOGY

A perennial woody climber with large tuberous roots that are connected by thin roots making it like a string of tubers. The leaves are trifoliate, alternate with rounded base and unequal sides. The inflorescence is long axillary or terminal raceme or panicles. Flowers bisexual, bluish-purple often with white stamens. Fruits are pods constricted between the seeds, densely clothed with bristly hairs with 3-6 seeds. 

PHARMACOGNOSY OF OFFICIAL PART
MACROSCOPY

YET TO BE COMPILED

MICROSCOPY

YET TO BE COMPILED

PART USED AND POSOLOGY
PART USED
मूल (Tubers)
DOSE

चूर्ण (Powder) – 3 to 6 gms

PHYTOCHEMISTRY

The plant contains Alkaloids, Carbohydrates, Steroids, Glycosides, Tannins, Terpenoids, Flavonoids, Coumarins and anthocyanides. The Tuber contain 85.1% dry matter, 64.6% Carbohydrates, 28.4% crude fibers and 10.9% protein. Some of the important phytoconstituents are isoflavonoids like pueraren, genaestin, daidzein, tuberosin, pterocarpanone-hydroxytuberosone, two pterocarpenes- anhydrotuberosin and 3-O methylanhydrotuberosin, coumestan, tuberostan, isoflavone – puerarone and a coumestan-puerarostan. It also contains β-sitosterol and is a good source for starch. 

रसपञ्चक कर्म PROPERTIES AND USES AS PER AYURVEDA
गुण (Properties)
  • रस (Rasa) – मधुर (Madhura)
  • गुण (Guna) – गुरु (Guru), स्निग्ध (Snigdha)
  • वीर्य (Veerya) – शीत (Sheeta)
  • विपाक (Vipaka) – मधुर (Madhura)
  • प्रभाव – None
कर्म & प्रयोग (Action & Indications)
  • दोषकर्म (Doshakarma) – वातपित्त शामक (Vatapitta Shamaka)
  • धातुकर्म & मलकर्म (Dhatukarma and Malakarma)  – Main actions – स्वर्य, बृंहण, स्तन्यदा, शुक्रदा, मूत्रल, बल्य, वर्ण्य, वृष्य & दाहहर (Swarya, Brimhana, Shukrada, Mutrala, Balya, Varnya, Vrishya and Dahahara
  • Other Actions – शोणितस्थापन, अलुलोमन & ज्वरघ्न (Shonitasthapana, Anulomana and Jwaraghna)
  • प्रयोग (Prayoga)  – Mainly क्षय, दौर्बल्य, स्तन्यक्षय, वर्णविकार, मूत्रकृच्छ्र & शुक्रमेह (Kshaya, Daurbalya, Varnavikara, Mutrakrichra and Shukrameha) also useful in प्रमेह, विषमज्वर, यकृत्वृद्धि, प्लीहवृद्धि, विबन्ध, etc (Prameha, Vishamajwara, Yakritvriddhi, Pleehavriddhi, Vibandha, etc)
AYURVEDIC FORMULATIONS
CLASSICAL
  1. विदार्यादि घृत
  2. विदार्यादि कषाय
  3. विदार्यादि चूर्ण
  4. विदार्यादि तैल
PROPRIETARY
  1. Vigorex for Her
  2. Herboy Capsule
  3. Vimfix tablet
AGRONOMY
ENVIRONMENT

The plant grows well in sub-tropical climate where there is shade and warmth with humid conditions. It grows up to an altitude of 1300mts. 

CULTIVATION

The plant grows well in a sandy loam soil which is rich in organic matter along with high moisture in the soil. The plant is propagated generally through seeds, tubers or even layering of the stem. The seed is soaked in water overnight and sown during May while the seedlings are planted in July. The vegetative propagation by using tubers is done during June and planted in August. The propagation through ground layering is done with help of hormones where the stem cutting are treated with growth hormones to facilitate rooting. A total of 7200 plants can be planted in 1 acre of land. It needs very less water and is usually irrigated around 2 to 3 times at the summer season. 

HARVESTING

The plant is a perennial one and is thus harvested after 4-5 years. The tubers are large and may weigh upto 20 kgs to the maximum. But the medium sizes are considered to be better one. The yield is around 2 tones for 1 acre.

STORAGE

The tubers are cut into thin slice, dried in shade. They are then kept inside air-tight containers which are stored in cool and dry places. 

VARIETIES AND SUBSTITUTES OR ADULTERANTS
VARIETIES

There are no varieties as such. But another plant namely क्षीरविदारी (Ipomea digitata Linn) is considered to be one due to the overlapping of the synonym.

ADULTERANTS

The tubers are adulterated with those of Adenia hondala W J De Wilde and Cycas circinalis L in raw drug markets. 

SUBSTITUTES

The tubers of the plant named Tricosanthes cordata Roxb belonging to the family Curcurbitaceae is available in the name भूमिकूष्माण्ड in the region of Bengal and Northeastern India.

TOXICITY
TOXIC SYMPTOMS
  • As such there is no proved toxicity of the plant.
ANTIDOTE
  • Not Applicable as such. 
शोधन or PURIFICATION METHOD
  • NOT NECESSARY
THERAPEUTIC USES

EXTERNAL USES –

The fresh roots are taken, crushed and rubbed over the body to treat fever and rheumatism. The tubers are peeled and bruised which are applied as cataplasm over the joints to reduce swelling and pain.

INTERNAL USES – 

Internally the only the fresh tubers are given as an emetic, tonic and lactagogue in Nepal. The powder of the tuber is given with milk as a galactogogue. The powder of tuber is given with honey to treat excessive menstruation. It is also mixed with wheat or barley, fried in ghee and given internally with milk to enhance strength. The fresh juice of tuber is mixed with cumin seeds and sugar and given internally to treat spermatorrhoea. 

CONTROVERSY (IF PRESENT)

YET TO BE COMPILED

LIST OF RESEARCH STUDIES
  1. Sharma S., Agrawal M. and lal M. (2018). Cultviation of “Vidarikand” (Pueraria tuberosa dc): a drug of potenial imporance. International Journal of Information Research and Review (IJIRR). 5 (5). 5460-5462
  2. Padmavenkatasubramanian et. al. Use of Ksiraviadri as a substitute for Vidari as per Ayurvedic Description. Published in Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge. Vol 8 (3) July 2009. 310-318.
  3. Sangeeta Shukla (1995) Toxicological Studies of Pueraria tuberosa, a Potent Antifertility Plant, International Journal of Pharmacognosy, 33:4, 324-329,
  4. Bharti R, Chopra BS, Raut S and Khatri N (2021) Pueraria tuberosa: A Review on Traditional Uses, Pharmacology, and Phytochemistry. Front. Pharmacol. 11:582506.

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