The plant is considered one of most used in Ayurveda due to its highly diversified effects. It is used to treat either individually or in combination with other medicinal substances for ailments comprising of multiple systems of the body. Its use is so prominent that Acharya Charaka has included it in 12 of his 50 Gana or groups. It is useful in respiratory conditions like cough, soar throat, laryngitis, pharyngitis, etc along with GIT conditions like hyperacidity, too. But the most important one is that it is considered primarily to be restorative and promotive in action. The Botanical name Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn is explained as ‘Glycyrrhiza = Sweet root and glabra = smooth and hairless‘ which explains the very nature of the root as it is the most used part of the plant for medicinal purposes. The details of the plant is as described below:

PLANT DETAILS

BOTANICAL NAME

Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn

FAMILY

Fabaceae

NOMENCLATURE

VERNACULAR NAMES
  • Kannada – Jeshtamadhu
  • Malayalam – Iratimadhuram
  • Tamil – Atimadhuram
  • Telugu – Yastimadhukam
  • Hindi – Mulethi
  • English – Indian Liquorice
SANSKRIT SYNONYMS
  • यष्टिमधु (Yashtimadhu), मधुक (Madhuka), मधुर (Madhura),  – Sweet taste of the root
  • मधुपर्णी (Yashtimadhu), मधुक, मधुर,  – Sweet taste of the leaf
  • क्लीतक (Kleetaka) – One that is imported
PLANT IMAGE
Yashtimadhu
Click image to enlarge
SAMHITA CLASSIFICATION
  • Charaka Samhita – कण्ठ्य (Kantya), जीवनीय (Jeevaneeya), सन्धानीय (Sandhaneeya), वर्ण्य (Varnya), कण्डुघ्न (Kandughna), मूत्रविरजनीय (Mutravirajaneeya), शोणितस्थापन (Shonitasthapana), छर्दिनिग्रहण (Chardinigrahana), स्नेहोपग (Snehopaga), वमनोपग (Vamanopaga), अङ्गमर्दप्रशमन (Angamardaprashamana) & आस्थापनोपग (Asthapanopaga)
  • Sushruta Samhita – काकोल्यादि (Kakolyadi), सारिवादि (Sarivadi) & अञ्जनादि (Anjanadi)
NIGHANTU CLASSIFICATION
  • Dhanvantari Nighantu – Guduchyadi Varga
  • Bhavaprakasha Nighantu – Haritakyadi Varga
  • Raja Nighantu – Pippalyadi Varga
  • Kaiyadeva Nighantu – Aushadhi Varga
BRIEF MORPHOLOGY

A herbaceous perennial plant with tender stem, hardly perennial herb or under shrub. Leaves are compound, imparipinnate, ovoid or lanceolate. Inflorescence is axillary spikes. Flowers are either lavender, pinkish, violet, white or even violet in colour. Fruits are pods, compressed around 3 cms long with 2-5 flat squared or kidney shaped seeds. Roots are long, reddish yellow bark with multiple branches longitudinally wrinkled and with central whitish pith.

PHARMACOGNOSY OF OFFICIAL PART
MACROSCOPY

YET TO BE COMPILED

MICROSCOPY

YET TO BE COMPILED

PART USED AND POSOLOGY
PART USED
मूल Roots
DOSE

चूर्ण (Powder) – 3-5gms

PHYTOCHEMISTRY

The root contains Glycyrrhizin in the form of a yellow powder. It also contains glycyrrhizic acid, anrethan, isoliquritin, a steroid eastrogen, glucose, sucrose, menite, starch, asperagine, etc.

रसपञ्चक कर्म PROPERTIES AND USES AS PER AYURVEDA
गुण (Properties)
  • रस (Rasa) – मधुर (Madhura)
  • गुण (Guna) – गुरु (Guru), स्निग्ध (Snigdha)
  • वीर्य (Veerya) – शीत (Sheeta)
  • विपाक (Vipaka) – मधुर (Madhura)
  • प्रभाव – None
कर्म & प्रयोग (Action & Indications)
  • दोषकर्म (Doshakarma) – वातपित्तशामक (Vatapittashamaka)
  • धातुकर्म & मलकर्म (Dhatukarma and Malakarma)  – Main actions – छेदन, कण्ठ्य, शोणितस्थापन, छर्दिनिग्रहण, मेध्य, वेदनस्थापन, चक्षुश्य, वातानुलोमन  (Chedana, Kantya, Shonitasthapana, Chardinigrahana, Medhya, Vedanasthapana, Chakshushya, Vatanulomana, Shothahara) 
  • Other Actions – तृष्णनिग्रहण, मृदुरेचन, दाहशामक, केश्य, जीवनीय, सन्धानीय, रसायन, व्रणरोपण, बल्य, विषघ्न, हिक्कनिग्रहण, त्वच्य, वर्ण्य, मूत्रल & मूत्रविरजनीय (Trishnanigrahana, Mridurechana, Dahashamaka, Keshya, Jeevaneeya, Sandhaneeya, Rasayana, Vranaropana, Balya, Vishaghna, Hikkanigrahana, Twachya, Varnya, Mutrala, Mutravirajaneeya)
  • प्रयोग (Prayoga)  – Mainly कास, श्वास, स्वरभेद, गलरोग (Kasa, Shwasa, Swarabheda, Diseases of throat), also useful in  रक्तपित्त, क्षय, आमवात, छर्दि, तृष्ण, विबन्ध, उदरशूल, परिणामशूल, पाण्डु, प्रमेह, मूत्रकृच्छ्र, शुक्रक्षय, वर्णविकार, व्रण & अपस्मार (Raktapitta, Kshaya, Amavata, Chardi, Trishna, Vibandha, Udarashula, Parinamashula, Pandu, Prameha, Mutrakricchra, Shukrakshaya, Varnavikara, Vrana and Apasmara)
AYURVEDIC FORMULATIONS
CLASSICAL
  1. यष्ट्यादि चूर्ण
  2. यष्ट्यादि क्वाथ
  3. यष्टिमध्वादि तैल
  4. अमृतप्राश घृत
  5. एलादि गुटिक
  6. प्रपौण्डरीकादि तैल
  7. चन्दनादि तैल
PROPRIETARY
  1. Shrikar amodini (BV Pandit Mysore)
AGRONOMY
ENVIRONMENT

YET TO BE COMPILED

CULTIVATION

YET TO BE COMPILED

HARVESTING

YET TO BE COMPILED

STORAGE

YET TO BE COMPILED

VARIETIES AND SUBSTITUTES OR ADULTERANTS
VARIETIES

NONE MENTIONED

ADULTERANTS

The roots are commonly adulterated with those of Abrus precatorius Linn which is also having similar feature and is non-poisonous along with sweet taste. 

SUBSTITUTES

YET TO BE COMPILED

TOXICITY
TOXIC SYMPTOMS
  • YET TO BE COMPILED
ANTIDOTE
  • YET TO BE COMPILED
शोधन or PURIFICATION METHOD
  • YET TO BE COMPILED
CONTROVERSY (IF PRESENT)

YET TO BE COMPILED

LIST OF RESEARCH STUDIES
  1. Ajay kumar Meena et.al., “PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON THE RHIZOMES OF GLYCYRRHIZA GLABRA LINN”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. Volume 2. Supplement 2. May 2010 Pg 48-50.
  2. Shashikant Prajapati, “Therapeutic Potential of Yashtimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn.) in Bruhat-Trayi and Laghu-Trayi-A Review”. Journal of Ayurvedic Science, Yoga and Naturoapthy. Volume 2. Issue 1 2015 Pg 26-33

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