The pharmacological action that is considered to be the that causes Srotorodha or block of channels is ABHISHYANDA. The substances that result in this action is supposed to have the Picchila and Guru properties thereby resulting in stagnation of movement and block of the pathway. The explanation of this activity from the modern perspective is not possible till date which shows the complexity of this action. We are trying to explain the action in an elaborate manner for better understanding and application. The details are explained on the basis of various references obtained from classical and recent texts of modern authors pertaining to the science of Ayurveda and also modern science.

।। ॐ श्री धन्वनतरये नमः ।।

DETAILS OF THE ACTION

ACTION NAME
अभिष्यन्द
POSSIBLE MODERN EQUIVALENTS
NO CLEAR EQUIVALENT PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTION IN MODERN PHARMACOLOGY

DEFINITION

DEFINITION
पैच्छिल्याद् गौरवाद् द्रव्यं रुद्धवा रसवहाः सिराः ।
धत्ते यद् गौरवं तत् स्यादभियन्दि यथा दधि ।। (शा.स.पू. 4th)
EXPLANATION/MEANING
The substance by virtue of its Picchila (Sticky) and Guru (Heavy) property will tend to block the channel that transmits the Rasa leading to Gaurava (Heaviness) of the concerned part of the body. This action is known as ABHISHYANDA
REFERENCE
The definition is from the text Sharangadhara Samhita (शा.स.)

OTHER DEFINITION

OTHER REFERENCES

अभिष्यन्दयति अवरुणद्धि क्लेदयति च स्रोतांसि इति अभिष्यन्दि । अभिष्यन्दि दोषधातुमलस्रोतसां क्लेदप्राप्तिजननम् । (ड – सु.सू. 46) 

दोष सङ्घात विच्छेदकारकम् । (चक्रपाणि – च.सू.13) 

EXPLANATION/MEANING

As per the reference from Dalhana, it is that action of the substance that covers the channels by virtue of the Kleda (Moisture) and ultimately block the movement of the contents of the same. It is the resultant of the Kleda (Moisture) that is that gets collected in the components of the body namely the Dosha, Dhatu and Mala. 

As per the reference from Chakrapani, it is the action produced by the substance that has the ability to break the complexes that are formed by the Doshas.

REFERENCE

The definition is from the Dalhana (ड) commentary on Abhishyanda in Sushruta Samhita.

The definition is from the Chakrapani (ड) commentary on Abhishyanda in Charaka Samhita.

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MODE OF ACTION / PHARMACODYNAMICS

AYURVEDA EXPLANATION

The above definition explains that Abhishyandi action is a complex one in its manifestation which has the ability to affect all the components of the body namely the Dosha, Dhatu and Mala. It is basically produced by the two main properties namely Guru and Picchila. These two properties produce a complex that makes it sticky and also difficult to be metabolised such that its absorption and assimilation in the body is not possible. As a result the metabolic products of the substance ingested will result in the increase of Kleda (Moisture) in the Dosha, Dhatu and Mala as opined by Dalhana. The moisture thus produced makes them more sticky and heavier which in-turn result in less, improper or no movements of the components, thus making them stagnated in their respective srotas or channels or pathways. This makes the part where the stagnation has occurred heavy due to collection of the Dosha, Dhatu or Mala in the complex state. It also results in the breakage of normal complexes in the body that these components usually need to be present physiologically because of the restricted or no movement of them. Thus making it unstable or even vitiated. Even the nourishment of the successive components or parts of the body is totally hampered due to the blockage of the channels or sticky and heavy nature of the components that form the basic precursors for the successive ones. Thus the final outcome of Abhishyandi is heaviness of the body part or even the whole body depending on the extent of the action. The extent of the affect also depends on the components that is being involved in the action namely if the Dosha is involved then the functionality of the body itself is hampered, if Dhatu is involved then the anatomical changes like deposition of material occur and if Mala is involved then the proper production and excretion is disturbed. In all the cases there will be a clear case of stagnation of the relative activities will be noticed.

MODERN EXPLANATION

Among the various physiological and pharmacological concepts regarding the action of substances in the body either food or medicine. Based on the different available sources, we can consider Channel blockers activities as equivalent ones for ABHISHYANDI. Even though this may not be the exact correlation the action is reviewed to have a variety of activities embedded in it.

Basically, channel blockers as per Wikipedia, are those actions in which a particular molecule or a compound is used to prevent the opening of ion channels in order to produce physiological response in a cell. These are caused by various molecules present in the substances like the amino acids, magnesium, venoms of different organisms, ions, chemicals, alkaloids, etc.

Basically an ion channel is a pore forming membrane protein that allow ions to pass through the channel pore. They are vast class of membrane proteins that play an important physiological role involving neurological, cardiological, immunomodulation, metabolic activities, etc. Based on the ion channel, it is mainly of 4 types namely Potassium, Chloride, Sodium and Calcium channels which are blocked by the different components of the substances.

The ion channels are formed by four subunits. Each subunit consist of two membranes made of lipids known as helix that cross the plasma or cell membrane. In between these two membranes there are spanning structures or loops that insert themselves into the membrane. An opening is present in the center of the assembly through which the ions pass. The opening is known as the pore formed by the protein loop and the helix. The channel has a narrowest part which will allow only that ion for which it is devised to pass through the bottleneck and is known as selective filter. Deep inside the channel is a water filled cavity that connects the interior of the cell to the pore. 

A channel block is induced by binding to the target channel pore and block the transport of the related ion through the same. This results in the inhibition of the related function of the channel. 

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INVESTIGATIVE PARAMETERS TO ASSESS

Sl. No.
CATEGORY OF PARAMETER
INVESTIGATION NAME
TYPE OF INVESTIGATION

1.

NOT YET COMPILED

NOT YET COMPILED 

NOT YET COMPILED

।। सर्वे जनाः सुखिनो भवन्तु सर्वे सन्तु निरामय ।।

LIST OF SUBSTANCES THAT EXHIBIT THE ACTION

SANSKRIT NAME
1. दधि
2. पनस
3. विरुद्ध आहार
BOTANICAL NAME

Curds

Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.

Incompatible food Combinations

PART USED
NA
Fruits
NA
।। सर्वे भद्राणि पश्यन्तु माकश्चिद्दुःखभाग्भवेत् ।।

RESEARCH PAPERS ON THE PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTION

Sl. No.

1.

2.

TITLE OF THE PAPER

STUDY OF ROLE OF PANCHATIKTA BASTI IN ABHISHYANDA PRADHANA PRAMEHA

CRITICAL STUDY OF DADHI

PUBLISHING JOURNAL

Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences

Journal of Sanskrit Samhita Siddhanta

CITATION

Mangesh Ganpat Dimble et.al. “Study of role of Panchatikta Basti in Abhishyanda Pradhana Prameha,” Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences (IOSR-JDMS), Volume 16, Issue 4, pp.64-68, 2017.

Sarode Sanjeev Prathamesh, Saraf Abhijit. “Critical Study of Dadhi.” Journal of Sanskrit Samhita Siddhanta, Volume 2, Issue 4, pp.4-13,2017.

।। ॐ शान्ति शान्ति शान्तिः ।।

ANIMATED VIDEO OF THE ACTION

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