The pharmacological action that is considered as that which augments the effect of ANUVASANA BASTI is ANUVASANOPAGA. The substances that come under this category belong to food, drinks, medicines and even lifestyles. The action is more emphasized towards the supporting effect for the procedure of Anuvasana which is a variety of Basti or Enema and is commonly known as OIL ENEMA. This is due to the reason that the main medium used for administering enema is fatty substances like oils.
DETAILS OF THE ACTION
POSSIBLE MODERN EQUIVALENTS
NO EQUIVALENT PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTION IN MODERN PHARMACOLOGY
The reference for this definition is self formulated but based on the commentary of Chakrapani mentioned for Snehopaga.
अनुवासनपि न दुष्यत्यनुदिवसं वा दीयते इत्यनुवासनः ।।
The procedure through which the Doshas are not disturbed even when the substance of enema doesn’t get evacuated is known as ANUVASANA.
Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana 35th Chapter 18th Quotation. (सु.चि. 35/18)
MODE OF ACTION / PHARMACODYNAMICS
The definition of ANUVASANOPAGA refers to the factors that are helpful in the boosting of the effects that are resulted due to the procedure namely ANUVASANA BASTI or Enema that is given with processed or unprocessed oils. Hence it is very obvious that we need to understand what is अनुवासन बस्ति (Anuvasana Basti). Basti is basically defined as “The procedure in which the the medicaments are administered by the help of a ‘Basti’ or bladder”. The Anuvasana Basti being a type of Basti is defined as “the one that doesn’t cause harm to the body nor disturb the Doshas even though it is not evacuated from the body after administration”. It is also mentioned as Sneha Basti or Oil Enemata by Charaka which indicates the medium through which the medicine is administered through the anal route. Basti is a procedure mentioned to be one among the 5 Purificatory procedures namely Panchakarma. Even though Anuvasana Basti is enumerated by Charaka under the list of Panchakarma, it is mainly said to have the benefit of nourishing the body. The minimum amount of time that it takes to be expelled out with respect to Anuvasana Basti is 3 Yama or 9 hours. But to obtain the maximum benefit of the procedure one has to follow the regimen that involves food, lifestyle and even medications. Anything that enhances the benefit of the procedure Anuvasana Basti is to be considered as Anuvasanopaga.
Thus Anuvasanopaga substances can be classified into three categories namely Food, Medicine and Lifestyle. The substances like Yusha (Soups) that are given as dietary requirement before, during and post procedure is to be taken into consideration. The medicaments that are not only enlisted under Anuvasanopaga gana of Charaka but also different oil preparations like Gandharvahastadi Eranda Taila, etc or even plain Tila taila (Sesamum oil) is to be considered as the medicaments under Anuvasanopaga. Lastly the life style which is indicated before, during or post procedure of Anuvasana Basti is also to be considered as it is also equally responsible for the accomplishment of the maximum benefits.
With respect to the action of Basti in general, it is important to know the procedure and the pathway that it covers. Basically Basti or enema is given through the anal route and is pushed into the large intestine with a controlled uniform force. The medicine thus moves from the anus to the large intestine upto the ileocaecal junction. The content of the medication being oil in medium, this will be giving the much needed lubrication to the walls of the intestine. For enhancement of the benefit, these oils are processed with different medicinal herbs such that it also gives a local healing effect too.
Not only this, it is also accepted that there is considerable absorption of water, salt, protein, carbohydrates and fat from the large intestine which makes the media all the more useful for giving adequate nourishment along with local repairing of the intestines. The absorption is more when the pH of the contents is basic while it is less when it is acidic. Large intestines are a preferred site for the absorption of proteins as the hydrolysis of these is prevented giving a better chance of providing nutrition to the body. But the absorption is largely dependent on the medicaments that is being used in the process where the role of Anuvasanopaga substances is seen. Now these absorbed nutrients and potential properties of the medicinal substances that are processed in the oil, will reach the heart through the portal and iliac veins that drain to Inferior Venacava as these two are the main vessels that are involved in the venous drainage of the large intestine, anus and rectum. Thus the nutrients and properties of medicaments reach all parts of the body. Moreover, ENS (Enteric Nervous System) which is referred as the second Brain of the body is also stimulated by the potentiated properties and nutrients that get absorbed during the procedure. The total minimum duration of retention is 9 hours but may extend further which makes it all the more useful in facilitating absorption and providing the benefits of the treatment.
Here the substances or circumstances that are classified as anuvasanopaga will either enhance the level of nutrients as in case of foods, potential properties as in case of medicine or the reduction of the time duration to accomplish the benefits by different advised lifestyle. Thus, leading to the increased benefits of the procedure for which it is undertaken. Basically, the procedure is the one that promotes strength and increase the vitality but when the oil which is used is processed with the medicaments then it also has the potency to provide extra benefits accordingly.
INVESTIGATIVE PARAMETERS TO ASSESS
CATEGORY OF PARAMETER
TYPE OF INVESTIGATION
NOT YET COMPILED
NOT YET COMPILED
NOT YET COMPILED
LIST OF SUBSTANCES THAT EXHIBIT THE ACTION
अनुवासनोपग गण/ANUVASANOPAGA GROUP OF CHARAKA
रास्नासुरदारु बिल्वमदनशतपुष्पावृश्चीरपुनर्नवाश्वदंष्ट्राग्निमन्थश्योणाका इति दशेमान्यनुवासनोपगानि भवन्ति । (च.सू. 4th Chapter)
Pluchea lanceolata (DC) Oliv & Hiern
Cedrus deodara (Roxb ex Lamb). D Don
Aegle marmelos Lam.
Randia dumetorum Retz. Poir
Foeniculum vulgare Mill.
Boerhavia repens Linn.
Boerhavia diffusa Linn
Tribulus terrestris Linn.
Clerodendrun phlomidis Lf.
Oroxylum indicum (L) Kurz.
Fruit, Root, Leaves
RESEARCH PAPERS ON THE PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTION
TITLE OF THE PAPER
Effect of Anuvasana Basti with Ksheerabala Taila in Sandhigata vata (Osteoarthritis)
Understanding The Mode Of Action Of Bastikarma (Medicated Enema)
Anveshana Ayurveda Medical Journal
Grampurohit PL, Rao N, Harti SS. Effect of anuvasana basti with ksheerabala taila in sandhigata vata (osteoarthritis). Ayu. 2014;35(2):148-151.
Subina et. al. Understanding the mode of action of bastikarma (medicated enema). AAMJ 2015; 1: 267-74