The pharmacological action which is used to name the 12th Group or Gana is ARSHAGHNA. This group consists of 10 substances which have varied properties exhibiting the extent of this pharmacological action. The said action is quite a simple and straightforward where it is the one that is being used in the treatment of Arsha equated as the Piles or Hemorrhoids. Even though the action is considered to be a single entity, the applicability is on the different factors that take part in the pathogenesis of the disease. This makes the action as multidimensional. The details are explained on the basis of various references obtained from classical and recent texts of modern authors pertaining to the science of Ayurveda and also modern science.

।। ॐ श्री धन्वनतरये नमः ।।

DETAILS OF THE ACTION

ACTION NAME
अर्शघ्न
MODERN EQUIVALENTS
THERAPIES INVOLVED IN TREATMENT OF HEMORRHOIDS OR PILES

DEFINITION

DEFINITION
येन अर्शमिवात्मानं मन्यते तदघ्नं अर्शोघ्नम् । (स्व) (च)
EXPLANATION/MEANING
The substance that is used in the form of food, drink and medicaments for the purpose of treating and curing the disease Arsha is known as Arshaghna.
REFERENCE
The reference for this definition is self formulated but based on the commentary of Chakrapani mentioned for Truptighna.​

DEFINITION

SYNONYMS

NOT YET COMPILED

EXPLANATION/MEANING

NOT YET COMPILED

REFERENCE

NOT YET COMPILED

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MODE OF ACTION / PHARMACODYNAMICS

AYURVEDA EXPLANATION

As per the definition, the substance that has the ability to counter the effects of the causative factors and remove the sprouts or swellings that are seen on the walls of the anal canal and rectum. It is characterised by bleeding per rectum, intense pain, constipation, discharge and enlarged bulging blood vessels which may also resemble prolapse. The main cause of the Arsha is Apana vayu vitiatin. This vitiated Apana Vayu will lead to constipation and over a course of time it leads to the manifestation of Arsha which is named after its characteristic intense pain. But the main cause of Apana Vayu vitiation is the Agnimandya or loss of proper digestion. Thus irrespective of what the causes are, the substances that are helpful in the relief of the symptoms, causes and in total the disease ARSHA is to be considered as ARSHOGHNA. The effect represents the action of the medicament against the disease in total thus getting the name of ARSHOGHNA to the activity. As the site of manifestation of Arsha, the substance is going to act on the region mainly in the repair of constipation, correction of Agni thus promoting proper digestion and easy evacuation. Based on this understanding, the properties that are necessary should be those against the Vata Dosha namely MADHURA, KASHAYA OR AMLA RASA, MADHURA OR AMLA VIPAKA  USHNA VEERYA, LAGHU AND  SNIGDHA GUNA. Among the properties enlisted Laghu is included as it is needed to enhance the Agni which is the main cause of the disease. The correction of the Agni will lead to the control of Vata Dosha which relieves constipation and thus removing the cause of the disease completely. 

MODERN EXPLANATION

Hemorrhoids in Modern science is said has three different philosophies or approaches which it relies upon for the purpose of treatment either conservative or surgical. These theories are that Hemorrhoids develop from the sliding anal cushions where the supporting tissues of anal canal deteriorate and slide downwards, Prolapse of rectum internally gives rise to rectal redundancy causing hemorrhoids and the loss of elasticity of arteriovenous plexus resulting in hyperperfusion within anal cushion. This shows that even the treatment for hemorrhoids or piles and the approach is a multidimensional in the contemporary science too. Hence, the pharmacological action ARSHOGHNA is considered to be considered to be a multidimensional one. Thus a straightforward correlation to Anti-hemorrhoidal (which is not existing in Modern Pharmacology) is not a possibility. Here, the use of medicaments belonging to the category of Venotonic agents are given orally while the topical applications include Local anesthetics, Anti-inflammatory, corticosteroids, antibiotics and sometimes even vasoconstrictors. (Ref

Other than medications, lifestyle and dietary modifications are also accepted in the contemporary science also which is very conclusive that the cause of Arsha or piles and hemorrhoids are mainly connected to the food and lifestyle which has to be more concentrated and corrected to have a complete cure. 

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INVESTIGATIVE PARAMETERS TO ASSESS

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CATEGORY OF PARAMETER
INVESTIGATION NAME
TYPE OF INVESTIGATION

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NOT YET COMPILED

NOT YET COMPILED 

NOT YET COMPILED

।। सर्वे जनाः सुखिनो भवन्तु सर्वे सन्तु निरामय ।।

LIST OF PLANTS THAT EXHIBIT THE ACTION

अर्शोघ्न गण/ARSHAGNA GROUP OF CHARAKA

कुटज बिल्व चित्रक नागरातिवषाभयाधन्वयास दारुहरिद्रवचाचव्यनीति दशेमान्यर्शोघ्नानि भवन्ति । (च. सू. 4th chapter)
SANSKRIT NAME
1. कुटज
2. बिल्व
3. चित्रक
4. नागर
5. अतिविष
6. अभय
7. धन्वयास
8. दारुहरिद्र
9. वच
10. चव्य
BOTANICAL NAME
Holarrhena antidysenterica (L) Wall ex. A. DC
Aegle marmelos Correa
Plumbago zeylanica L
Zingiber officinale Roscoe
Aconitum heterophyllum Wall.
Terminalia chebula Retz
Fagonia cretica Linn
Berberis aristata DC
Acorus calamus L
Piper chaba Hunter
PART USED
Bark
Root
Root
Root
Root, Seed & Oil
Root
Heartwood
Root
Seeds
Root
।। सर्वे भद्राणि पश्यन्तु माकश्चिद्दुःखभाग्भवेत् ।।

RESEARCH PAPERS ON THE PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTION

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TITLE OF THE PAPER

ARSHOGHNA (ANTI-HEMORRHOIDAL) HERBAL DRUGS OF RAJNIGHANTU: A LITERARY REVIEW

IMPORTANCE OF ARSHOGHNA MAHAKASHAYA OF CHARAKA SAMHITA: A REVIEW

A REVIEW ARTICLE ON ROLE OF ARSHOGNA MAHAKASHAYA IN THE TREATMENT OF SUSKH ARSHA

PUBLISHING JOURNAL

International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research

World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research

International Journal of Research – GRANTHAALAYAH

CITATION

Biswal, A., Thakur, D., & Prabala, V. (2015). ARSHOGHNA (ANTI-HEMORRHOIDAL) HERBAL DRUGS OF RAJNIGHANTU: A LITERARY REVIEW. International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research2(8). Retrieved from https://ijapr.in/index.php/ijapr/article/view/181

Patel Akanksha, et.al., “IMPORTANCE OF ARSHOGHNA MAHAKASHAYA OF CHARAKA SAMHITA: A REVIEW,” World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, Volume 6, Issue 10, pp. 443-451, 2017.

Dr. Sheetal Sharma, and Dr. Preeti Sujit Borkar. (2020). A REVIEW ARTICLE ON ROLE OF ARSHOGNA MAHAKASHAYA IN THE TREATMENT OF SUSKH ARSHA. International Journal of Research -GRANTHAALAYAH, 8(10), 328-332. https://doi.org/10.29121/granthaalayah.v8.i10.2020.2274

।। ॐ शान्ति शान्ति शान्तिः ।।

ANIMATED VIDEO OF THE ACTION

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