The pharmacological action that is considered as that which augments the effect of ASTHAPANA BASTI is ASTHAPANOPAGA. The substances that come under this category belong to food, drinks, medicines and even lifestyles. The action is more emphasized towards the supporting effect for the procedure of Anuvasana which is a variety of Basti or Enema and is commonly known as DECOCTION ENEMA. This is due to the reason that the main medium used for administering enema is the concoction of different substances like herbs or even animal products like urine, blood, flesh, etc which are rare too. Majority of the formulations are sourced out from herbs itself

।। ॐ श्री धन्वनतरये नमः ।।

DETAILS OF THE ACTION

ACTION NAME
आस्थापनोपग
POSSIBLE MODERN EQUIVALENTS
NO EQUIVALENT PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTION IN MODERN PHARMACOLOGY

DEFINITION

DEFINITION
आस्थापनोपगो इति आस्थापनविधौ उपगन्तु पानाहारादिषु शीलं यस्य सा यथा । (स्व)
EXPLANATION/MEANING
The substance that is used in the form of food, drink or medicaments that enhance the action and the relative effects of the ASTHAPANA procedure or treatment is known as ASTHAPANOPAGA
REFERENCE
The reference for this definition is self formulated but based on the commentary of Chakrapani mentioned for Snehopaga.

OTHER DEFINITION

OTHER REFERENCES

वयः स्थापनातायुः स्थापनात् या आस्थापनम् ।   

EXPLANATION/MEANING

The procedure through which the life force gets established and stabilized is known as Asthapana

REFERENCE

Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana 35th Chapter 18th  Quotation. (सु.चि. 35/18)

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MODE OF ACTION / PHARMACODYNAMICS

AYURVEDA EXPLANATION

The definition of ASTHAPANOPAGA refers to the factors that are helpful in the boosting of the effects that are resulted due to the procedure namely ASTHAPANA BASTI or decoction Enema that is given with decoctions made from different ingredients like herbs or some animal products. Hence it is very obvious that we need to understand what is आस्थापन बस्ति (Asthapana Basti). Basti is basically defined as “The procedure in which the the medicaments are administered by the help of a ‘Basti’ or bladder”. The Asthapana Basti being a type of Basti is defined as “the one that establishes life”. It is also mentioned as Sneha Basti or Oil Enemata by Charaka which indicates the medium through which the medicine is administered through the anal route. Basti is a procedure mentioned to be one among the 5 Purificatory procedures namely Panchakarma. Even though Asthapana Basti is enumerated separately by Charaka under the list of Panchakarma, it is considered to be the only variety considered by the other scholars. This is because, it is having the main function of purification or Shodhana of the body. The minimum amount of time that it takes to be expelled out is 1 Muhurta or 45 minutes. The composition of the enema is basically of 5 ingredients in Asthapana Basti they are honey, Rock salt, Taila (medicated oil), Kalka (paste of herbs or animal products) and lastly the Kwatha (decoction) which is mixed in the same order such that it forms a good and smooth mixture. But to obtain the maximum benefit of the procedure one has to follow the regimen that involves food, lifestyle and even medications. Anything that enhances the benefit of the procedure Asthapana Basti is to be considered as Asthapanopaga. 

Thus Asthapanopaga substances can be classified into three categories namely Food, Medicine and Lifestyle. The substances like Yusha (Soups) that are given as dietary requirement before, during and post procedure is to be taken into consideration. The medicaments that are not only enlisted under Asthapanopaga gana of Charaka but also different preparations like the roots of Dashamula, roots of Castor, etc which are made into decoctions and administered during the process are also to be considered as Asthapanopaga. Lastly the life style which is indicated before, during or post procedure of Asthapana Basti is also to be considered as it is also equally responsible for the accomplishment of the maximum benefits. 

MODERN EXPLANATION

With respect to the action of Basti in general, it is important to know the procedure and the pathway that it covers. Basically Basti or enema is given through the anal route and is pushed into the large intestine with a controlled uniform force. The medicine thus moves from the anus to the large intestine upto the ileocaecal junction. The content and composition of the medication being honey, salt, oil, paste (Herbal or herboanimal) and decoction where the main medicum is the decoction which is in high proportion will lead to considerable irritation of the walls initiating secretions and clearing the walls of the intestine. With the presence of Honey and oil the harmful effect of the decoction namely dryness and possible inflammation due to irritation is lessened. Honey and salt are considered to be good in catalysing the process of absorption which will lead to the absorption of the important components of Kashayam, taila and the paste into the body thus aiding in the supply of medication, nourishment to fight against the disease through intestinal routes. For enhancement of the benefit, if the oils are processed with different medicinal herbs such that it also gives a local healing effect too, then it will be an added benefit. 

Not only this, it is also accepted that there is considerable absorption of water, salt, protein, carbohydrates and fat from the large intestine which makes the media all the more useful for giving adequate nourishment along with local repairing of the intestines. The absorption is more when the pH of the contents is basic while it is less when it is acidic. Large intestines are a preferred site for the absorption of proteins as the hydrolysis of these is prevented giving a better chance of providing nutrition to the body. But the absorption is largely dependent on the medicaments that is being used in the process where the role of Asthapanopaga substances is seen. Now these absorbed nutrients and potential properties of the medicinal substances that are processed in the decoction, will reach the heart through the portal and iliac veins that drain to Inferior Venacava as these two are the main vessels that are involved in the venous drainage of the large intestine, anus and rectum. Thus the nutrients and properties of medicaments reach all parts of the body. Moreover, ENS (Enteric Nervous System) which is referred as the second Brain of the body is also stimulated by the potentiated properties and nutrients that get absorbed during the procedure. The total minimum duration of retention being 45 minutes, the evacuation is to happen after or later which if doesn’t then will lead to different harmful effects unlike Anuvasana Basti. This is because, the water being the main medium of the material, the absorption will be maximum in this method where the larger the time it stays, more will be its effect. Hence, to avoid further irritation and secretion leading to inflammation, it is always said to be evacuated forcibly if it doesn’t come out by itself. 

Here the substances or circumstances that are classified as asthapanopaga will either enhance the level of nutrients as in case of foods, potential properties as in case of medicine or the reduction of the time duration to accomplish the benefits by different advised lifestyle. Thus, leading to the increased benefits of the procedure for which it is undertaken. Basically, the procedure is the one that performs biopurification of intestines and also helps in transmitting the vital medicinal substances that are helpful in the control and cure of many diseases. Hence the combination of the substances form a important part of the process for it to give the maximum benefits.

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INVESTIGATIVE PARAMETERS TO ASSESS

Sl. No.
CATEGORY OF PARAMETER
INVESTIGATION NAME
TYPE OF INVESTIGATION

1.

NOT YET COMPILED

NOT YET COMPILED 

NOT YET COMPILED

।। सर्वे जनाः सुखिनो भवन्तु सर्वे सन्तु निरामय ।।

LIST OF SUBSTANCES THAT EXHIBIT THE ACTION

आस्थापनोपग गण/ASTHAPANOPAGA GROUP OF CHARAKA

त्रिवृद्बिल्वपिप्पलीकुष्ठसर्षपवचावत्सकफलशतपुष्पामधुकमदनफलानीति दशेमान्यास्थापनोपगानि भवन्ति । (च.सू. 4th Chapter)

SANSKRIT NAME
1. त्रिवृत् 
2. बिल्व
3. पिप्पली
4. कुष्ठ
5. सर्षप
6. वचा
7. इन्द्रयप
8. शतपुष्प
9. यष्टमधु
10. मदनफल
BOTANICAL NAME
Operculina turpethum (Linn) Silva Manso
Aegle marmelos Lam.
Piper longum Linn.
Saussurea lappa (Decne) Sch Bip
Brassica campestris  Linn
Acorus calamus Linn.
Holarrhena antidysentrica (L) Wall ex A DC
Anethum graveolens Linn. (dill.)
Glycyrrhiza glabra L
Randia dumetorum Retz. Poir
PART USED
Rhizome

Heart Wood

Fruit, Root, Leaves
Fruit
Fruits
Roots
Roots
Full plant
Roots
Roots
।। सर्वे भद्राणि पश्यन्तु माकश्चिद्दुःखभाग्भवेत् ।।

RESEARCH PAPERS ON THE PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTION

Sl. No.

1.

2.

TITLE OF THE PAPER

Asthapanopag gana in aspect of Panchakarma: A review

A CRITICAL REVIEW OF LOGIC BEHIND USE OF ASTHAPANOPAGA GANA IN VARIOUS NIRUHA BASTIS

PUBLISHING JOURNAL

World journal of Pharmaceutical Research

International Ayurvedic Medical Journal 

CITATION

Nithin Bhirud, Nithin Jadhava, Sanjay Nandedkar. Asthapanopag gana in aspect of Panchakarma: A review. World journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2020;9(15):365-372. 

Chandaliya Sachin Et Al: A Critical Review Of Logic Behind Use Of Asthapanopaga Gana In Various Niruha Bastis. International Ayurvedic Medical Journal {online} 2017 {cited November, 2017} Available from: http://www.iamj.in/posts/images/upload/4249_4257.pdf 

।। ॐ शान्ति शान्ति शान्तिः ।।

ANIMATED VIDEO OF THE ACTION

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