The pharmacological action which is responsible for the main line of treatment is Shodhana. It is the ability of the substance to remove the vitiated दोष (Dosha) from the body through various natural orifices. The substance mode of action is clearly explained in the classical texts like Charaka Samhita especially of Vamana and Virechana for easy understanding. Thus there is no single and common terminology in Modern pharmacology that is equivalent to this particular action. This is because Samshodhana involves a group of actions namely Vamana (Emetics), Virechana (Purgatives), Shirovirechana (Nasal errhines) and Basti (Enema therapy). The mode of action is different for each which is again explained separately in Ayurveda too. But the description of the said action here is the summarised aspect of all the four activities with emphasis on the its purificatory effects. Here in the present pages we will be describing the mode of action from the substance point of view. The details are as described below:
DETAILS OF THE ACTION
The reference is from Sharangadhara Samhita (शा. स.)
SYNONYMS (IF PRESENT)
MODE OF ACTION / PHARMACODYNAMICS
The action SAMSHODHANA deals with variety of systems and its relative activities. Even in Ayurveda this actually denotes the cleansing mechanism in general. But based on the site or region for which this action is employed, the relative effect will be seen. The activities and their emphasis on the cleansing effect in the body totally grouped into this action. Thus, this action is to be subdivided into different individual actions resulted by activities like Emetics, Purgatives, Nasal errhines and enema on a gross level while activities like Vranashodhana (Wound cleansing) are also to be considered as SAMSHODHANA activity.
Thus this activity can be classified into two major types namely Bahya (external) and Abhyantara (Internal) type of SAMSHODHANA. The Bahya (external) variety includes all those actions that perform the cleansing activity like Vranashodhana, etc similar actions while the Abhyantara (Internal) variety includes the activities Vamana, Virechana, Shodhana Basti and Shodhana Nasya.
The important properties that are necessary for the said action are Ushna, Teekshna and Sukshma along with actions like Vyavayi and Vikasi. Most of the substances that are producing the action mainly possess Tikta or Katu while the Veerya being Ushna. The Vipaka in this context is of less importance as the substance that are being used perform the action before they get digested. But for some sub-actions the presence of Prabhava with respect to that action like Urdhwabhagahara Prabhava necessary for the action Vamana action is also necessary else the desired action will not result.
Incase of Vrana shodhana the main property that bring about this action is Kashaya Rasa, Guru, Ruksha Guna and Sheeta Veerya. Here too the Vipaka of the substance plays no role as the substance doesn’t undergo any transformation.
The said action is a very complex to be described not only in light of Modern Scientific knowledge but also in Ayurveda too. This is because it involves various sub-activities which are explained in the relevant section. The explanation regarding them will be dealt separately under the respective contexts. But the one that is relevant in this context will be Detoxification Agents.
As per Modern Pharmacology, Detoxification is a physiological or Medicinal removal of toxic substances mainly through liver and also withdrawal of certain medicinal substances after a long term use. According to Physiology Liver and Kidney are the natural detoxifying organs that perform the action of detoxifying the body.
Normally the metabolic processes produce toxic and harmful substances which are made less toxic by the process of reduction, oxidation, conjugation and finally excretion from cells, tissues and lastly body itself. It involves many enzymes like cytochrome P450 oxidases.
As Samshodhana is a pharmacological action which is complex in itself as described in Ayurveda, will also holds good in light of Modern system too.
INVESTIGATIVE PARAMETERS TO ASSESS
CATEGORY OF PARAMETER
TYPE OF INVESTIGATION
NOT YET COMPILED
NOT YET COMPILED
NOT YET COMPILED
LIST OF PLANTS THAT EXHIBIT THE ACTION
उभयतोभागहर गण/UBHAYATOBHAGAHARA mentioned in SUSHRUTA SAMHITA
Charaka has enumerated the substance that are useful for Virechana, Vamana, Asthapana, Anuvasana and Shirovirechana separately. As these come under the category of Samshodhana all the substances can be considered here. Sushruta has mentioned Urdhwabhagahara, Adhobhagahara, Ubhayatobhagahara and Shirvirechana. Along with these substances attributed with other actions mentioned in the explanation of SAMSHODHANA are also to be considered.
Luffa echinata Roxb
Luffa acutangula (L) Roxb
Euphorbia pilosa Linn
Momordia charantia L
Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam
Lagenaria siceraria Standle
Root, seed, latex
RESEARCH PAPERS ON THE PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTION
TITLE OF THE PAPER
Clinical efficacy of Shodhana Karma and Shamana Karma in Mandala Kushtha (Psoriasis).
International Journal of Green Pharmacy
Mangal, Gunjan et al. “Clinical efficacy of Shodhana Karma and Shamana Karma in Mandala Kushtha (Psoriasis).” Ayu vol. 33,2 (2012): 224-9. doi:10.4103/0974-8520.105242
Umesh Chaudhary. “CLINICAL EVALUATION OF SAMSHODHANA(VAMANA KARMA) THERAPY ANDSAMSHAMANA (PATHADI GHANA VATI) THERAPY IN THE MANAGEMENT OF PREDIABETES”. International Journal of Green Pharmacy. Volume 10. Issue No.2. Apr-June 2016.