The pharmacological action which has the capacity to enhance the conversion of (AMA) undigested or unmetabolised matter in the body parts is recognised as PACHANA. In certain instances the action will be along with DEEPANA where it is known as DEEPANA-PACHANA. The action is usually equated with DIGESTIVES or METABOLICS. 

।। ॐ श्री धन्वनतरये नमः ।।

DETAILS OF THE ACTION

ACTION NAME
पाचन
MODERN EQUIVALENTS
DIGESTIVES, METABOLIC BOOSTERS OR METABOLIC ENHANCERS

DEFINITION

DEFINITION
पचत्यामं न वन्हिं च कुर्याद्यत्तद्धि पाचनम्। (शा. स. पू. 4th Chapter)
EXPLANATION/MEANING
The action of the substance that has the ability to metabolise or digest the (AMA) unmetabolised or undigested matter with the body without an increase of AGNI is known as PACHANA.
REFERENCE
The reference is from Sharangadhara Samhita (शा. स.) respectively

SYNONYMS (IF PRESENT)

SYNONYMS

NONE

EXPLANATION/MEANING

NONE

REFERENCE

NONE

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MODE OF ACTION / PHARMACODYNAMICS

AYURVEDA EXPLANATION

The action PACHANA is to be again understood from the perspective of AGNI because even in the description of this action like Deepana, there is involvement of AGNI. But the function that is more concerned here is with respect to the digestion or metabolic activity of AGNI. Thus it is to be understood that the substances that are considered to be purely PACHANA like NAGAKESHARA as exemplified by Sharangadhara. Even though they increase the ability to metabolize the substances in the body, they don’t increase the appetite of the individual. Thus, the action involves only AGNI and not any other factors SAMANA VAYU or KLEDAKA KAPHA that are involved in digestion or metabolism as a whole. It is because the function of SAMANA VAYU is to energize or activate AGNI along with facilitating movement of substances right from ingestion or acceptance to various processes. 

As the primary activity of AGNI is PACHANA which stands for transformation or metabolism, the substances should be of the similar nature such that the said action is resulted. Hence the properties that are desired to be present in the substances that have the potency to produce the PACHANA action are similar to that of AGNI Mahabhuta. Hence they should possess KATU, AMLA, LAVANA RASA; KATU VIPAKA; USHNA VEERYA and LAGHU, RUKSHA GUNA. 

Charaka while enumerating the 50 GANAS has not used the name of PACHAKA action and while analysing the different components of Deepaneeya GANA we can see that there are substances that can be considered to be having the both action of DEEPANA & PACHANA like CHITRAKA as exemplified by Sharangadhara. 

MODERN EXPLANATION

The most common correlation given to the Action is Digestives. 

Digestives are defined as an agent any substance that aids in the process of digestion or even promotes the digestion of food. 

The process of digestion involves a general breakdown of complex structures present in food into simpler absorbable ones (carbohydrates to monosaccharides, Fats to fatty acids and Proteins to aminoacids) while the cellular metabolism is right its opposite namely consumption of these simpler absorbable ones into complex homogeneous ones resulting in energy for functioning of the body, storage of energy and building of gross body. 

The process of metabolism including digestion involves various factors like enzymes, age, individual variations, intestinal flora, nutrition, etc. It also involves physical and chemical breakdown and resynthesis or reformation to result in a homogenous structure. it involves large complex sequence of controlled biochemical reactions which are commonly known as metabolic pathways. These processes bring about different changes like growth, adaptation, repair of body parts, degeneration, etc. 

The process of Pachana involves all these within its fold giving it a broader and complex nature rather than just restricting it to digestives.

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INVESTIGATIVE PARAMETERS TO ASSESS

Sl. No.
CATEGORY OF PARAMETER
INVESTIGATION NAME
TYPE OF INVESTIGATION

1.

NOT YET COMPILED

NOT YET COMPILED 

NOT YET COMPILED

।। सर्वे जनाः सुखिनो भवन्तु सर्वे सन्तु निरामय ।।

LIST OF PLANTS THAT EXHIBIT THE ACTION

दीपनीय गण/DEEPANEEYA GROUP OF CHARAKA

Charaka even though has not mentioned the substances under the banner of Pachana, the ones that are mentioned in Deepaneeya Gana which are having the property that are suitable for the action of PACHANA also. The details of regarding the composition of the group can be obtained from the page Deepana of the website while in the present site the substances that are said to have the action of Pachana but not mentioned in the group of Deepaneeya are enumerated as examples. It is to be noted that, those which are enumerated in both the lists are to be read as those having both the action of DEEPANA & PACHANA

SANSKRIT NAME
1.मुस्त
2.नागकेशर
3. यवक्षार
4. कट्वङ्ग
5. अतिविष
6. उदीच्य
7. चित्रक
BOTANICAL NAME
Cyperus rotundus Linn
Mesua ferrea Linn
Hordeum vulgare Linn
Oroxylum indicum Vent
Aconitum heterophyllum Wall
Pavonia odorata Willd
Plumbago zeylanica Linn
PART USED
Root
Stamens
Alkalie extract
Root
Root
Root
Root
।। सर्वे भद्राणि पश्यन्तु माकश्चिद्दुःखभाग्भवेत् ।।

RESEARCH PAPERS ON THE PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTION

Sl. No.

1.

2.

3.

TITLE OF THE PAPER

DEEPANIYA AND PACHANIYA DRAVYAS (APPETIZER AND DIGESTANT DRUGS) IN AYURVEDIC CLASSICS: A CRITICAL REVIEW

Experimental evaluation of Deepana and Pachana Activity of Chitraka Kwatha w.s.r. to different Reduction Criteria

Conceptual Interpretation and Applied Facet of Deepana and Pachana

PUBLISHING JOURNAL

Indian Journal of Agriculture and Allied Sciences

Journal of Ayurveda and Integrated Medical Sciences (JAIMS)

International Journal of Innovative Knowledge Concepts

CITATION

Sapna Chaudhary et al.DEEPANIYA AND PACHANIYA DRAVYAS (APPETIZER AND DIGESTANT DRUGS) IN AYURVEDIC CLASSICS: A CRITICAL REVIEW. Indian Journal of Agriculture and Allied Sciences. 2017; 3(4):130-132 

B.N., Ashok Kumar et al. EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF DEEPANA AND PACHANA ACTIVITY OF CHITRAKA KWATHA WSR TO DIFFERENT REDUCTION CRITERIA. Journal of Ayurveda and Integrated Medical Sciences, v. 1, n. 4, p. 42 – 51, jan. 2017.

Vandana Singh et.al. “Conceptual Interpretation and Applied Facet of Deepana and Pachana“. International Journal of Innovative Knowledge Concepts. Volume 7. Issue No.1. January 2019. p.131-138.

।। ॐ शान्ति शान्ति शान्तिः ।।

ANIMATED VIDEO OF THE ACTION

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